CHAPTER II : OF UNIVERSAL REDEMPTION
Universal redemption, or, that Christ died for all men, cannot be a Gospel truth, because of the following arguments and reasons.
The Extent of the Atonement
God imposed his wrath due unto, and Christ underwent the pains of hell for, either
1. All the sins of all men,
2. All the sins of some men, or
3. Some of the sins of all men.
In which case it may be said:
a. That if the last be true, all men have some sins to answer for, and so none are saved.
b. That if the second be true, then Christ, in their stead suffered for all the sins of all the elect in the whole world, and this is the truth.
c. But if the first be the case, why are not all men free from the punishment due unto their sins? You will say, Because of unbelief; they will not believe. But this unbelief, is it a sin or is it not? If not, why should they be unpunished for it? If it be, then Christ underwent the punishment due to it or not. If he did, why must that hinder, more than the other for which he died, from partaking of the fruit of his death? If he did not, then he did not die for all their sins.
John Owen. (Lewis Sperry Chafer, "Systematic Theology", Vol. III. P. 198., 1957, Dallas Seminary Press, Dallas, Texas)
Objections Against Particular Redemption Answered
Objection 1. What everyone is bound to believe must be true, and it is the duty of all men to believe; therefore Christ must have died for all men.
Objection 2. The words "all" and "every," often used in Scripture, must be taken universally.
Objection 3. In Joh 3:16, and in 1Jo 2:2, it is declared that God gave Christ for the "world," and for the sins of the "whole world;" which must be taken literally.
"Zion's garden wall'd around,
Chosen and made peculiar ground;
A little spot, enclosed by grace,
Out of the world's wide wilderness."
Objection 4. Surely Christ hath as much efficacy to save as to damn (see Ro 5:17).
Objection 5. In Ro 14:15, it is said, "destroy not him for whom Christ died." And in 2Pe 2:1, persons are described as "denying the Lord that bought them."
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