John 20: 6-10
NW NRSV LIVING
Verse 6 who was behind came, following him, and arrived and went inside.
him, arrived and went into went
into the tomb. He saw also
noticed the linen
the tomb. He saw the strips the
linen wrappings lying wrappings
of linen lying there, there,
Verse 7 as well as the burial and the cloth that had
been while the
cloth that had
cloth that had been around on
Jesus’ head, not lying covered
Jesus’ head was
Jesus’ head. The cloth was with
the linen wrappings but folded up and lying to the
folded up by itself, separate rolled
up in a place by itself. side.
from the linen.
Verse 8 Finally the other Then the other disciple, Then the other disciple
disciple, who had reached who
reached the tomb first, went
the tomb first, also went also
Verse 9 (They still did not for as yet they did not for until then they
understand from Scripture understand
the scripture, realized
that the Scriptures
that Jesus had to rise from that
he must rise from the said
he would rise from the
the dead.) dead. dead.
Verse 10 Then the disciples Then the disciples returned
Then they went home. went back to their homes to their homes.
Simon Peter arrived,
following him, and he entered into the tomb and he saw the wrappings, the
7 And the face cloth which was upon the head
of him not lying with the wrappings laid but rolled up separately upon a nearby
8 The at that time the other disciple came
also, the one coming first at the tomb, and he saw and he believed.
9 They not yet understanding the scripture
that he must himself to be raised from dead.
10 Then the disciples went back to themselves.
In verse 6, a majority of the Alexandrian witnesses
chose to omit ,ezo~t Nestle-Aland includes K&L Since
it makes for a simpler reading, I chose to omit K&L from
In verse 10, ai’no~ç is replaced by ~u in a majority of
the witnesses. This changes the translation to
6 Who was the one that Simon Peter followed?
7 How did he know it was the head cloth that
was lying separately from the other wrappings? What is the significance, if
any, of the head cloth lying separately? Is it important that it was folded up?
Why were these wrappings lying in the tomb? If they were burial wrappings, who
do they belong to?
8 Who is the other disciple? Why did he
hesitate to enter the tomb? What made him finally decide to enter? What did he
see? What did he believe?
9 What scriputre did they not understand? Who
is the “he” that must rise from the dead?
10 Where did the disciples go back to? Why did
they leave? Was it just the two disciples or were others with them?
John 20:11-15 (JP)
Step I – Initial Acquaintance
A. Comparison of English Translations. I compared the RSV, the NASB, and the Message
NASB, RSV stooped
NASB, RSV had been lying
Mess had been laid
NASB, RSV taken away my Lord
Mess They took my Master
NASB, RSV she did not know it was Jesus
Mess But she didn't recognize him.
NASB, RSV and I will take him away.
Mess so I can care for him.
B. Textual Criticism
In investigating the textual apparatus, there is no real pertinent information to be found. The text, when challenged, has been heavily supported by the Alexandrian manuscripts. An example of this occurs in v. 14 where the insertion of kai has no Alexandrian support. The one bit of critical apparatus that caught my eye occurs in v. 11, in which en has been added instead of pro , thus changing the meaning of the text from Mary stood at/in the tomb to Mary stood at/to the tomb. The text that Nestle has is supported by a majority of Alexandrian texts.
C. Rough Translation
Mary had stood at the tomb outside weeping. Then as she was weeping, she stooped into the tomb and sees to angels in white sitting, one at the head and one at the feet, where was lying the body of Jesus. And say to her those ones, "Woman, why do you weep?" She says to them, "they took the Lord of me, and I do not know where they placed him." And she sees Jesus having stood, and did not know that it is Jesus. Says to her Jesus, "Woman, why do you weep? Who do you seek?" Supposing that one the gardener he is, she says to him, "Tell me where you placed him, and I will take him."
How does Mary know that these people are angels? What is her reaction to their presence? Why did they ask her why she was weeping? As if they didn't know? Or was it because they wanted to comfort her? And why didn't she recognize Jesus? Was it this whole transformation thing, or was it just he looked a little disheveled because he had been dead? And why does Jesus ask her the same exact question that the angels had asked? Same sort of rhetorical questioning? And where was Mary going to take the body of Jesus?
John 20:16-20 (BR)
Comparisons of Translations (Issues raised):
KJV: "Touch me not"
NIV: "Do not hold on to me"
RSV: "Do not hold me"
Greek: Mh, mou a[ptou – my best translation is "You be not touching me"
Present middle imperative, 2nd person singular
The question that arises here is was Jesus touched and then said "Stop touching me", or did he tell them not to touch him before they had a chance to? The verb a[ptw can also mean harm or injure. Did their touching hurt Jesus in some way? Was he saying, "Ouch!, quit touching me".
KJV: when the doors were shut
NIV: with the doors locked
RSV: the doors being shut
Greek: qurw/n kekleisme,nwn - my translation is "having shut the doors"
Perfect passive participle, genitive feminine plural
In our culture, shut and locked are not the same thing. If I shut my door and come to class, it's much easier for someone to get in then if I locked my door. The second part of this verse reads "for fear of the Jews". How fearful were they? The level of fear would is shown to be heightened by using locked over shut. Shut seems to mean: just in case someone happens by. Locked would lean toward: they're after us, so lock the door.
KJV: where the disciples were assembled
NIV: the disciples were together
RSV: where the disciples were
KJV: "Peace be unto you."
NIV: "Peace be with you!"
RSV: "Peace be with you."
Greek: Eivrh,nh u`mi/nÅ - my translation is "Peace to all of you" (the Northern version)
u`mi/nÅ is dative 2nd plural
My question is in regards to this as a normal greeting of the resurrected Jesus. It is used in John 3 times (in this chapter) and in Luke 24:36 (It's also used in 1 Peter 5:14). What is the peace that Jesus greets them with? Is he articulating a hope or a proclamation? Or is it just a greeting like "Hi, how are you?", or "Have a nice day".
v. 16 has two Alexandrian sources that add "and running toward him to take hold of him" which could help explain why Jesus says in the next verse "You be not touching me". This adds some information to the question of whether or not she touched Jesus before his warning or not, however it does not answer the question, a case can be made for either.
V 18 has some variation in the word Ew,raka (have seen) as to the person. The text had three Alexandrian sources that are 1st singular. There is on variant that has two Alexandrian sources that use the 3rd singular (Ew,raken she, making it narrative, not discourse) and one that has one Alexandrian source that uses 1st plural (Ew,rakamen we). The last one, even though it has the least support begs the question: Who is we?
V 19b: The variant here has more Alexandrian support than the text. Three sources add in autou sunhgmenoi (they assembled). It appears that the KJV and possibly the NIV use the variant, whereas the RSV uses the text. The question is, were they assembled together because of their fear or where they in the house because of their fear (or both)?
16 – Says to her Jesus, "Mary! Turning, that one says to him, "Rabboni, that is to say, Teacher.
17 – Says to her Jesus, "Be not touching me, for not yet have I ascended to the Father of me. But go to the disciples of me, and say to them, I ascend to the Father of me and the Father of all of you; and the God of me and the God of all of you.
18 – Comes Mary Magdalene bring word to the disciples, that she has seen the Lord, and these things He told her
19 – It being Then evening, on that day, the first of the Sabbaths, and the doors having been locked were the disciples were assembled, because of the fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and says to them, Peace to you.
20 – And this saying He showed them the hand and the side of him. Rejoiced, therefore, the disciples seeing the Lord.
Most of this pericope is John only. Verses 19-20 have some relation to Luke 24:36-43 when Jesus appears to them out of nowhere.
Matt 28:9 is explicit about the women coming and grasping Jesus' feet.
1. The concept of fear that the disciples had "of the Jews". Who are "the Jews" here, technically? Weren't they all Jews? Did they think they were next in line to be crucified? Were they dead-bolted in, or was the door just shut?
2. The reconciling of John stating that Jesus instructed Mary not to touch him, while Matt saying that the women grabbed his feet. Is this easily reconcilable? Should it be?
3. Peace be to you. What kind of peace is Jesus talking about? How important is this peace? Is this His hope or his proclamation? Was this a greeting used in early Christian circles (1 Peter 5:14 uses it as a closing)?
John 20:21-25 (TT)
Comparison of translations:
NRSV – so I send you
NIV – I am sending you
NLT – so I send you
NRSV – If you retain the sins of any, they are retained.
NIV – If you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.
NLT – If you refuse to forgive them, they are unforgiven.
NRSV – But Thomas (who was called the twin), one of the twelve
NIV – Now Thomas (called Didymus), one of the Twelve
NLT – Thomas (nicknamed the Twin), one of the disciples
NRSV – one of the twelve
NIV – one of the Twelve
NLT – one of the disciples
pe,mpw – the text has 3 Alexandrian sources, PAI 1s – "I send"
pe,myw – this variant has only 1 Alexandrian source, FAI 1s "I will send"
avposte,llw – this variant has 3 Alexandrian sources, PAI 1s – "I will send out"
avfe,wntai– the text has 3 Alexandrian sources, Perf Pass I 3p – "their sins have been forgiven "
avfeqh,setai– this variant has 1 Alexandrian source, PAI 3p – "their sins are being forgiven"
avfi,entai, – this variant has 1 Alexandrian source, Fpass I 3s – "his/her sins will be forgiven"
21 Jesus, therefore, said to them again, 'Peace to you; according as the Father hath sent me, I also send you;'
22 and this having said, he breathed on them, and said to them, 'Receive the Holy Spirit;
23 whoever you'all forgive the sins, they are forgiven to them; whoever you'all retain, they have been retained.'
24 And Thomas, one of the twelve, who is called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came;
25 the other disciples, therefore, said to him, 'We have seen the Lord;' and he said to them, 'If I may not see in his hands the mark of the nails, and may put my finger to the mark of the nails, and may put my hand to his side, I will not believe.'
All but verse 23 is exclusively associated with John. Verse 23 has a parallel in Matthew. Matt. 18:18 talks of "binding" and "loosing" sins (or forgiving and not forgiving sins).
Verse 21 is parallel with Luke 24:49: sending the disciples out.
Verse 22 has a parallel with Ezekiel 37:9: God breathing life into the dry bones.
1. What does Jesus "breathing" the Holy Spirit into/onto them mean? Does this give credence to the Spirit proceeding from the Father "and the Son" as the West has maintained in the Nicene Creed? Does this relate to John 7:39? How does is relate to Pentecost?
2. What kind of power is Jesus giving the disciples in verse 23? Is this the same as the "binding and loosing" scripture from Matthew? Does this have something to do with the church, the Spirit, both?
3. What is the nature of the sending out of the disciples? Does it make a difference if pe,mpw is used vs. avposte,llw? Where is he sending them? To the cross?
John 20: 26-31 (SB)
Step I (Initial Acquaintance)
Greek from Revised Standard New International The Message
Nestle-Aland xxvii Version Version
26a- emeras okto Eight Days A week Eight
26b- thuron Doors
were shut Doors were locked The locked doors
27- ginou apistos Do not be faithless, Stop
doubting and Don’t be
believing believe unbelieving.
alla pistos Believe!
eorakas me Have you believed Because
you have So, you believe
you have seen me you have because you have
pepisteukas seen me? believed; seen with your own
30- alla semeia Other
signs Miraculous signs God-revealing signs
31- zoen echete en Have life in his Have
life in his Have real and
name name eternal life in the
to onomati autou way
Vs. 26: Insignificant
due to lack of Alexandrian and other sources.
Vs. 27: Insignificant
due to lack of sources.
Vs. 28: Kai, o: Insignificant due to minority of
alteration to the text.
Vs. 29: eipen: Minor significance- change to
aorist from present. Omission of Definite Article before Thomas’ name.
Vs. 29: me: Insertion of”me” changes text to
“Blessed are the ones not having seen me and having believed. Support only from
Vs. 30: Omission
of autou supported by Vaticanus.
Alexandrian family strongly
supports the text.
Vs. 31: pisteuete: A change from the Aorist
active Subjunctive to the Present active
Subjunctive Mood. The Alexandrian documents Sinaiticus and Koridethi and
the Miniscule 892 support the change from the text.
Vs. 31: aionion: Insertion of the word eternal.
Support from Sinaiticus, Ephraemi, L, Psi, and Miniscule families 13 and 33.
through eight days again his disciples were within and Thomas (was) with them.
Jesus came of the door being shut and is into the middle, and said “Peace to
27. Then he
says to Thomas, “Bring your finger here and see my hands and bring your hand
and cast into my side, and do not become non-believing but believing.”
answered Thomas said to him, “my Lord and my God!”
says to him, “Because you have seen me you have believed? Blessed are the ones
not having seen and having believed.”
Jesus made many other signs in the presence of his disciples, it is not being
written in this Book.
31. But He
writes these things in order that you believe that Jesus is the Christ the Son
of God and in order that you believe you have life in his name.
1. In vs.
26 was the door shut, or was the door locked? The translations differ. Is the
point of the author that the occurrence of Jesus in the. room was supernatural?
2. I find it interesting that the
first message that the Lord gives to the disciples in this passage is “Peace to
you.” What is the message that we as a church provide to fellow disciples from
our resurrected Lord?
3. In vs. 27 is Jesus rebuking
Thomas for his unbelief or is he telling Thomas that he will do whatever it
takes to help him believe?
4. In vs. 28: What is our
response when Jesus reveals the fallacy of our doubt?
vs. 29: Who are the ones that Jesus is referring to when he says “Blessed are
the ones having not seen and having believed?” Is he referring to those outside
of the house, outside of the time, or both? Basically, was he referring to me?
6. In verse 30: What are the
7. In verse 31: It seems that the
difference in the text criticism is a possible difference between life eternal
and life temporal.
In this passage we see
the culmination of the prologue at the beginning of John in 1:1-18. The themes
of Light and Darkness and well as The relationship of the Father and the Son
are prevalent in John 20. In the resurrected Lord we see the glory of the
QUESTIONS FROM OTHERS:
John 20:16-20 (BR)
Did Jesus tell them not to touch him because of the cleanliness laws about not touching things that are dead?
John 20:11-15 (JP)
When Jesus appeared to Mary, were the angels from before still there, or had they vanished?