Class Presentation on Luke 24
Back to Post-Resurrection Appearance Stories

Outline of chapter 24
A. 1-3 Empty Tomb
B. 4-7 Heavenly Brilliance
C. 8-11 Response of the Women
D. 12 Peters Response (Verse 12 left out of original manuscript added based on John 20:3-10
E. 13-32 On the Road to Emmaus
1. 13-16 Jesus Appears to Two Men
2. 17-27 Dialogue Between Jesus and Cleopas
3. 28-32 Supper in the Village
F. 33-35 Report to the Disciples in Jerusalem
G 36-37 Second Appearance of Jesus
H. 38-43 Doubts of the Disciples and Jesus’ Response
1. 38-40 Jesus Show His Hands and Feet, Living Flesh and Bones
2. 41-43 Eats a Piece of Fish
I. 44-49 Jesus Teaches the Disciples
1. 44-46 Teachings
2. 47-49 Commission
J. 50-53 Blessing and Ascension

Luke 24: 1-8 (JR)

Comparison of KJV, NIV and RSV

1 They came unto the Sepulchre/ bringing the spices/ and certain others with them (KJV) And went to the tomb/ the woman took the spices (NIV) They went to the tomb (RSV)
2 Sepulchre (KJV) Tomb(NIV and RSV)
3 And found not the body of the Lord Jesus (KJV) And found not the body of the Lord Jesus (NIV) Did not find the body (RSV)
4 And it came to pass as they were much perplexed thereabout/ Behold/ Shining garments (KJV) While they were wondering about this/ Suddenly/ Clothes that gleamed like lightning (NIV) While they were perplexed about this/ Behold/ Dazzling apparel (RSV)
5 They were afraid / faces to the earth (KJV) In their fright / faces to the ground (NIV) They were frightened / faces to the ground (RSV)
6 Spake unto you (KJV) Told you (NIV & RSV)
7 Rise again (KJV) Be raised again (NIV) Rise (RSV)

Rough translation: 1) But the one the Sabbath at early dawn, they came on the tomb 2) But they found the stone having been rolled away from the tomb, 3) And when they entered in they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. 4) And it happened while they were to be uncertain about this, behold, two men approach them in dazzling clothes. 5) And having become afraid, and bowing their faces to the ground, the men said to them why are you seeking the one living among the dead? 6) He is not here, but is risen; remember how he spoke to you while in Galilee, 7) Saying for the Son of Man it is necessary to be delivered over into the power of sinful man and to be crucified and on the third day to be raised. 8) And they remembered His words,

Text Critical- no changes warranted.


I. Who rolled the rock away?
1) Did the Guards roll the stone away? If so, did they do that to loot? If the guards rolled the stone away- was the body already gone? Is it possible that the guards disposed of the body? Perhaps because the guards were also caught up in the feeding frenzie that surrounded this crucifixion?
2) Did Angels roll away the stone? If so, was that necessary? Could Jesus not exit without the stone being rolled away? Was this like the temptation story, where he was attended to by the angels? Was Jesus too weak at that point to move about?
3) Did Jesus roll the stone away? If so, when? Why? He seemed to be able to appear from place to place, so why was the stone rolled? Does it tie into his not being purified yet? Was his bodily state still in need of the use of doorways at this point? Did Jesus need the stone to be rolled away to exit? Did the stone, itself, roll away under the request of Jesus? As a human, we always start out placing the human as a participant…Maybe other parts of God’s creation had a part.
4) Why was it done? To show the guards up? After all, they were allegedly present to assure that Jesus’ body was not taken.
5) Is the stone being rolled away to show that the authority of the Lord is over all men’s attempts to control Jesus and his mission? In our present day language, a power issue. The stone being rolled away can be seen as definitely belittling the guards.
6) Was it done by Jesus to help the women who were worried about how they were going to move the stone? Jesus was very close to these women and it could be that the stone was rolled to assist the women. It certainly expedited their task. There was no time wasted by the women at the tomb …they arrive and know straightway the body is gone. They don’t have to spend the better part of the day trying to get access…Something like this would explain the stone, if Jesus did not physically need the opening to exit.

II. Who are the two men?
1) Are they angels? They gave information about Jesus .
2) The two men knew about meeting in Galilee.
3) Local men did not wear Dazzling clothes…so if these were not heavenly creatures, what else could it have been? It seems clear they were not men.

Study of Luke 24: 9-17 (SKC)

Step I - (Initial) Acquaintance

A. Comparison of English or other published translations. I consulted the KJV, RSV, and the Phillips New Testament in Modern English.

V. 9
KJV sepulchre
RSV, Phillips tomb

v. 10
KJV, RSV other women that were with them
Phillips and their companions

v. 11
KJV, RSV idle tales
Phillips sheer imagination

v. 12
KJV Then arose Peter
RSV no verse 12
Phillips Only Peter got up

KJV linen clothes laid by themselves
RSV no verse 12
Phillips linen clothes laying there

v. 15
KJV communed together and reasoned
RSV talking and discussing
Phillips absorbed in serious talk and discussion

v. 16
KJV eyes were holden that they should not know him
RSV eyes were kept from recognizing him
Phillips something prevented them from recognising him

B. Textual Criticism

i. Verse 12 is omitted completely in the RSV. It is listed in the Nestle-Aland- the 28th edition.
The omission is supported by the 25th edition of the Nestle Aland, and all or the majority of Old Latin witnesses as a group

The inclusion of verse 12 is supported by p25 and the rest of the manuscript tradition including the Majority texts . External evidence lends to a reading that includes verse 12.

C. One’s own rough translation

:9 And having returned from the tomb they informed all these things to the eleven and to all the others. :10 Now there were Mary Magdalene and Joanna and Mary the mother of James and the others with them. They were telling to the apostles these things, :11 and appeared before them as nonsense these words and they were disbelieving them. :12 But Peter having risen to the tomb and having looked he sees the linen cloth only, and he departed to himself marveling the thing having happened. :13 And behold two of them in the same day were traveling to village being distant sixty stadia from Jerusalem to which name is Emmaus. :14 And they were speaking to one another concerning all these things having happened. :15 And it came about while they to talk and to discuss and Jesus himself having come near was traveling with them :16 but their eyes were held not to recognize him.

Step II- Disposition:

II Disposition Personal Integration i. What’s the significance of verse 12 being debated for inclusion? ii. Is there any significance for the double infinitives here in v. 15 and later in v. 26- style or substance iii. Whey didn’t they believe the women? Why was Peter the only one to verify? iv. What is the significance in the linen cloth being left behind? v. Where their eyes blinded or where they supernaturally overpowered or was Jesus’ resurrected body so different they just couldn’t recognize him?

Luke 24: 17-24 (BD)

English Translation Comparison

Versions Compared: New Revised Standard Version New Jerusalem Bible The Message

17 They stood still, looking sad. (NRSV) They stopped, their faces downcast (NJB) They just stood there, long-faced, like they had lost their best friend. (Message)
21 But we had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel. (NRSV) Our own hope had been that he would be the one to set Israel free. (NJB) And we had our hopes up that he was the One, the One about to deliver Israel. (Message)

23 …who said he was alive (NRSV) … who declared he was alive )NJB) …who said he was alive. (Message)

24 Some of those who were with us went to the tomb and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him. (NRSV) Some of our friends went to the tomb and found everything exactly as the women had reported, but of him they saw nothing. (NJB) Some of our friends went off to the tomb to check and found it empty just as the women said, but they didn’t see Jesus. (Message)

The Alexandrian family supported the Nestle-Aland choices of text used in the following pericope. I found nothing of significance to mention today.


1. In verse 19, are Cleopus and his friend still trying to determine who Jesus is?
2. What is the significance of the use of a double infinite in verse 23 for the women “To see!”? And (Jesus) "To live! "?
3. Is the vision of the angels an actual vision of the resurrection?
4. Are the angels in the vision telling Jesus to live?
5. Did the people who went to the tomb because of the women’s story also see the vision since they found it just as the women said, but him they did not see?

Rough translation

17 But he to them, “What are these words which you discuss to each other while walking. And they stood gloomy.” 18 Then having answered, one name Cleopus said to him, “(Are) you alone, living as a stranger in Jerusalem, and you do not find out the things having taken place in it, in these days?” 19 And he said to them, “What things?” They said to him “The things about Jesus of Nazareth, who was a person, a prophet, capable of influential deed and word before God and every person. 20 How both of them , the high priests and the rulers of them, delivered him into judgement of death and they crucified him. 21 But we were hoping that he was the one going to redeem Israel, but also with all these things this third day passes, from which these things had taken place. 22 But also some women from among us, they have amazed us, having been early in the morning at the tomb. 23 And not having discovered the body of him, they returned saying, "Also a vision of angels to see who (is) saying him to live." 24 And some of the ones with us were leaving to the tomb, and they found it just as the women had said, but him they did not see.

Luke 24:25-32 (RR)
Comparison of Translations:

25 RSV “Oh Foolish Men”
NIV “How foolish you are”
Message “So thick headed!”

30 RSV When he was at table with them, he took the bread and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them. 31 And their eyes were opened and they recognized him; and he vanished out of their sight.
30 NIV When he was at the table with them, he took bread, gave thanks, broke it and began to give it to them. 31 Then their eyes were opened and they recognized him, and he disappeared from their sight.
30 Message And here is what happened: He sat down at the table with them. Taking the bread, he blessed and broke and gave it to them. At that moment, opened-eyed, they recognized him. And then he disappeared.

Rough Translation

25 And he said to them, "O foolish men, and slow of heart to believe all that they spoke the prophets.” 26 “Not these things it was necessary to suffer the Christ and to enter into the glory of him?” 27 And having begun with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted for them in all the scriptures the things for himself. 28 And they drew near to the village where they were going, and he gave the impression that far away to go. 29 And they persuaded him saying, “You remain with us, because toward evening it is and it was drawn to a close now the day." And he went to live with them. 30 And it happened at the (to sit at table) him with them, having taken the bread he blessed and having broken he was giving to them. 31 And of them the eyes were opened and they knew him. And he invisible became from them. 32 And they said to each other, "Was not the heart of us being burned within us while he was speaking to us on the road, while he opened to us the scriptures?"


1. Verse 26 Was it really necessary for Jesus to suffer?
2. Verse 27 Is this the link to the Old Testament from Creation to Isaiah? Is Jesus the “Great I AM?” Are the prophesies really talking about Jesus?
3. Verse 28 Is this “far, far away” horizontal or vertical distance that Jesus is going to travel?
4. Verse 30 Was this just a meal or was this the Sacrament of Holy Communion? Did Jesus describe the Trinity as being present at the meal to enabled the two men to see him? Did the Trinity let them see Jesus?
5. Verse 35 Is this describing a blessing or the bodily resurrection of Jesus? Spirit?

Luke 24:33-41 (KH)

I. Comparison of Translations

In comparing three versions, the RSV, the Louis SEGOND (French), and The Message, I was able to find some interesting similarities and differences. Differences that stand out to me I note below. Verse RSV Louis SEGOND The Message 34 The Lord has risen indeed… (RSV) Le Seigneur est réellement ressuscité (LS) “It’s really happened! The Master has been raised up (Message)
36 « La paix soit avec vous ! » (LS) “Peace be with you.” (Message)
37 But they were startled… (RSV) Saisis de frayeur… (LS) They…were scared half to death. (Message)
38 …questionings (RSV) …pareilles pensées (LS) …doubting questions (Message)
40 Et en disant cela, il leur montra ses mains et ses pieds. (LS) As he said this, he showed them his hands and feet. (Message)

II. Textual Criticism

The most striking note in the text-critical notations is found in verse 37. There is an impressive Alexandrian split between the use of ptohqe,ntej which is the word the text uses, qrohqe,ntej, and fobhqe,ntej. The RSV translates they were startled, in the Louis Segond the same ones were seized with fright, and in the Message they were scared half to death. In Liddell and Scott ptohqe,ntej is defined as to be scared, dismayed. Other Alexandrian sources prefer qrohqe,ntej, or fobhqe,ntej. qrohqe,ntej is defined in Liddell and Scott as to be stirred, moved, and fobhqe,ntej is defined as to be seized with fear, be affrighted. It would be interesting to look to see how the LXX uses these words.

III. Rough Translation

33. and having raised himself the moment the returned to Jerusalem and they found themselves being gathered together the eleven and those with them 34. they saying that indeed (he, she, it) was raised the Lord and he was seen by Simon 35. and they themselves were telling these things on the way and how (he, she, it) was known by them in the breaking of bread 36. these things but they having spoken he (he, she, it) set in between them and he says to them peace y’all 37. they being terrified but even full of fear they becoming they thinking spirit to see 38. and (he, she, it) said to them why y’all being troubled y’all are and because of why thoughts they are going up (growing) in the heart of y’all 39. y’all see the hands of me and the feet of me that I am myself y’all touch me and y’all see that spirit flesh and bone not (he, she, it) has as I y’all see me having 40. and this having said (he, she, it) showed them the hands and the feet 41. still but they having failed to believe themselves because of the joy and they marveling (he, she, it) said to them y’all have anything eatable here?

IV. Personal Interaction

I would like to try to find out: 1) why the RSV leaves out “Peace be with you.”; 2) why the RSV leaves out “As he said this, he showed them his hands and feet.”; and 3) if “they” were scared, dismayed, seized with fear, or stirred or moved when they saw a spirit. I would like to know what the significance of these three too.

Luke 24:42 - 53 (GG)

Comparison of English Translations:

The three English translations compared were the Revised Standard Version, The New International Version, and The Message. The differences I found significant are listed below.

Revised Standard Version New International Version The Message 43 ate before them (RSV) and ate it in their presence (NIV) ate it right before their eyes (Message)
47 forgiveness of sins should be preached (RSV) forgiveness of sins will be preached (NIV) forgiveness of sins is proclaimed (Message)
51 he left them and was taken up into heaven (RSV) he parted from them, and was carried up into heaven (NIV) took his leave, being carried up to heaven (Message)

B. Textual Criticism:

The phrase kai. avnefe,reto eivj to.n ouvrano,nÅ ( and was being taken up into the heaven) has the flag which indicates that it is omitted by the sources cited. In comparing the Gospels accounts from the outer margin notes, you will find that the only matching Gospel account of Jesus ascending is found in Mark 16 :19 which is also flagged for omission. However, the Book of Acts, which was also written by Luke, makes reference to the fact that Jesus ascended using the word avnelh,mfqhÅ in Acts 1:2. This fact shows consistency in the writings of Luke and is solid external evidence for accepting the ascension account as what the author originally wrote.

C. Rough Translation

42 and having gave to him a piece fish broiled 43 and having took in the presence of them ate it 44 And he said to them, These the words which I spoke to you while I was with You, that must be fulfilled. All the things written in the Law Of Moses and prophets and Psalms concerning me 45 Then open of them the mind of the one to understand the Scriptures 46 And He said to them that in this way it is written to have suffered the Christ and to be raised out of death the third day 47 And to be preached on the name of him repentance into forgiveness of sins to all the nations, having begun from Jerusalem 48 You are witnesses of these things 49 And see I send the promise of my Father on you, But you sit in the city until that you are clothed from of Heaven power 50 But He led them outside until near Bethany and having raised his hands, He blessed them 51 But in His blessing them He parted from them and was being taken up into the heaven 52 And they having worshiped Him they returned to Jerusalem with gladness great 53 And they remained continually in the temple blessing {the} God.


The following questions were generated from my initial comparison during Step 1a and refers to verses 43, 47, and 51

43. Why did Jesus ask for the fish? Was it because He was hungry or was it to prove that he was not a ghost?
47. How should the Infinitive Aorist Passive be transplanted?
51. What are the forces at work here? Is it (are they) visible or invisible that causes Jesus to ascend?