1st Corinthians Chapter 15
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1 Peter 1: 1-21

Provided by KH

I Peter 1: 1-21 [1] Peter apostle of Jesus Christ to [the] elect temporary residents of the Diaspora of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia [2] according to [the] foreknowledge of God [the] father by consecration of [the] spirit into obedience and a sprinkling of [the] blood of Jesus Christ, may grace and peace to you (pl.) increase.  [3] Blessed the God and father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the one according to his great mercy has given new life to us in a living hope through [the] resurrection of Jesus Christ from [the] dead, [4] into an imperishable and pure and unfading part kept in heaven for us, [5] the ones being guarded in [the] power of God through faith into salvation, ready to be revealed in [the] last time.  [6] In which you (pl.) are extremely joyful, if only for a little while it is necessary, having grieved in all kinds of trials, [7] in order that the means of testing your (pl.) faith of greater value than the gold being destroyed through [testing by] fire, may be found for praise and glory and honor in [the] revelation of Jesus Christ [8] whom not having seen [him] you (pl.) love, in whom while not now seeing you believe and you are extremely joyful with an inexpressible and glorious joy [9] receiving for yourself (pl.) the end of your (pl.) faith [the] salvation of self.  [10] Concerning [the] salvation of which the prophets sought and made careful search, having prophesied the one [salvation] of grace that concerns you (pl.), [11] while inquiring into which or what time the spirit of Christ in them was showing having predicted concerning the sufferings of Christ and afterward these glories [12] which it was revealed that not themselves but you (pl.) they were serving that which now was told to you (pl.) through the gospel-ed ones [in] [the] Holy Spirit having been sent from heaven, into which angels desire to look.  [13] Therefore binding up the loins of your (pl.) mind being self-controlled completely hope in the grace being brought to you (pl.) in [the] revelation of Jesus Christ.  [14] Like children of obedience do not be shaped by your former desires in the ignorance [15] rather according to the one having called you (pl.) is holy and you (pl.) are holy in every manner of life you be holy [16] because it is written that you (pl.) will be holy because I am holy.  [17] And if you (pl.) call upon [the] father the one judging impartially according to each one’s work live in reverence the time you (pl.) stay among strangers  [18] you (pl.) having known that not [by] perishable silver or gold you (pl.) were redeemed from the useless manner of life handed down from your (pl.) ancestors to you [19] but [by] Christ’s precious blood like that of a lamb faultless and without defect [20] on the one hand having been known before creation [of the] cosmos on the other hand having been made known in the last times on account of you (pl.) [21] through him you “have faith” in God the one having raised him from dead and having given him glory that your faith and hope be in God.


            The letter is written to temporary residents.  Within the letter we find the language of eulogy starting in verse 3 with Euvloghto.j.  The eulogy is for one that has died and is now living.  An inheritance has been given to the writer of the letter and its audience.  This inheritance is a God-given, new life through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.  It is imperishable and pure and unfading, kept in heaven.  The letter calls the temporary residents to reverent living among strangers.  The residents are redeemed by precious blood that is contrasted with perishable silver or gold, inferior means of exchange.  Another ingredient of contrast concerns the useless manner of life handed down from ancestors on one side, and the giving of Christ’s precious blood like that of a lamb faultless and without defect on the other.  Finally, the end of the section I looked at points to God who raised Jesus from the dead.

This eulogy for this once dead one, who now lives, reminds me of what is symbolized in baptism, i.e. we go into the water and die, and we come back up alive.  In fact, in verse 7 it looks like we find explicit baptism language: “in order that the genuineness of your (pl.) faith of greater value than the gold being destroyed through [testing by] fire, may be found for praise and glory and honor in [the] revelation of Jesus Christ.” 

If we take this letter in its entirety, we could end up looking at this part of the whole in terms of oikos imagery.  If in this eulogy we have an inheritance that is imperishable, kept in heaven, could we be talking about the body of Christ, the Church, the oikos for temporary residents?  After all, temporary residents need a place of residence.  I see here an image of temporary residents living in the body of Christ, the Church.  As these residents are living in the oikos, they are building it, too.

The question still remains for me: what did the post-resurrection body of Christ look like?  How does this passage inform us concerning Christ’s post-resurrection body?  In this passage, I see a sincere faith in the resurrection of Christ fueling a letter that has a different focus than my questions do.  The focus that I see is on what the body of Christ is now.

1 Peter 1: 22 - 2:17

Provided by BD

Comparison of Translations

I Peter Chapter 1:22 –2:17


Revised Standard Version

New Jerusalem Bible

New King James


Having purified your souls by your obedience to the truth for a sincere love of the brethren, love one another earnestly from the heart.

Since by your obedience to the truth you have purified yourselves so that you can experience the genuine love of brothers, love each other intensely from the heart;

Since you have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit in sincere love of the brethren, love one another fervently with a pure heart,


You have been born anew, not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and abiding word of God;

for your new birth was not from any perishable seed but from imperishable seed, the living and enduring Word of God.

having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever,


for "All flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, and the flower falls,

For all humanity is grass, and all its beauty like the wild flower's. As grass withers, the flower fades,


because "All flesh is as grass, And all the glory of man as the flower of the grass. The grass withers, And its flower falls away,


but the word of the Lord abides for ever." That word is the good news which was preached to you.

but the Word of the Lord remains for ever. And this Word is the Good News that has been brought to you.

But the word of the LORD endures forever." Now this is the word which by the gospel was preached to you.


So put away all malice and all guile and insincerity and envy and all slander.

Rid yourselves, then, of all spite, deceit, hypocrisy, envy and carping criticism.

Therefore, laying aside all malice, all deceit, hypocrisy, envy, and all evil speaking.


 Like newborn babes, long for the pure spiritual milk, that by it you may grow up to salvation

Like new-born babies all your longing should be for milk -- the unadulterated spiritual milk -- which will help you to grow up to salvation,

as newborn babes, desire the pure milk of the word, that you may grow thereby,



for you have tasted the kindness of the Lord

at any rate if you have tasted that the Lord is good.

if indeed you have tasted that the Lord is gracious.


Come to him, to that living stone, rejected by men but in God's sight chosen and precious

He is the living stone, rejected by human beings but chosen by God and precious to him; set yourselves close to him

Coming to Him as to a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious,



For it stands in scripture: Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and he who believes in him will not be put to shame."


As scripture says: Now I am laying a stone in Zion, a chosen, precious cornerstone and no one who relies on this will be brought to disgrace

Therefore it is also contained in the Scripture, "Behold, I lay in Zion A chief cornerstone, elect, precious, And he who believes on Him will by no means be put to shame."


those who do not believe

But for unbelievers,

but to those who are disobedient,


and "A stone that will make men stumble, a rock that will make them fall"; for they stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do.

a stumbling stone, a rock to trip people up. They stumble over it because they do not believe in the Word; it was the fate in store for them.

and "A stone of stumbling And a rock of offense." They stumble, being disobedient to the word, to which they also were appointed.


But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, that you may declare the wonderful deeds of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.

But you are a chosen race, a kingdom of priests, a holy nation, a people to be a personal possession to sing the praises of God who called you out of the darkness into his wonderful light.

But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light;


…once you had not received mercy but now you have received mercy.

…once you were outside his pity; now you have received pity.

… who had not obtained mercy but now have obtained mercy.


Beloved, I beseech you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh that wage war against your soul.

I urge you, my dear friends, as strangers and nomads, to keep yourselves free from the disordered natural inclinations that attack the soul.

Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul,



Maintain good conduct among the Gentiles, so that in case they speak against you as wrongdoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation.

Always behave honourably among gentiles so that they can see for themselves what moral lives you lead, and when the day of reckoning comes, give thanks to God for the things which now make them denounce you as criminals.

having your conduct honorable among the Gentiles, that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may, by your good works which they observe, glorify God in the day of visitation.



… whether it be to the emperor as supreme,

… the emperor, as the supreme authority,

… whether to the king as supreme,


… to punish those who do wrong and to praise those who do right.

… to punish criminals and praise those who do good.


…for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of those who do good.


Live as free men, yet without using your freedom as a pretext for evil; but live as servants of God. 

You are slaves of no one except God, so behave like free people, and never use your freedom as a cover for wickedness.

as free, yet not using liberty as a cloak for vice, but as bondservants of God


Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the emperor.


Have respect for everyone and love for your fellow-believers; fear God and honour the emperor.

Honor all people. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.



Textual Criticism


I did not find anything that would alter or effect my translation.


Rough Translation


1 Peter 1:22 – 2:17

1Peter 1:22-25

22 the souls of you having purified/cleansed by obedience to the truth into 

     sincere/genuine brotherly love from pure of heart love one another     


23 having been given new birth not from perishable seed/origin subjected to decay but

     through of imperishable/immortal word of living God and remaining.

24 therefore because all flesh is like grass and all glory of it like flower/blossom of grass.

     And the flower/blossom was falling off.  

25 But the word of the Lord remains into the world order/eternity, but this is the word

     having been preached/proclaimed as good news to you.

1 Peter 2:1-17

1   Therefore having thrown off wickedness/trouble/worry and all deceit/treachery and

     Hypocrisies/insincerities and envies/jealousies/spites and all slanders/insults.

2        Like newborn babies the rational/spiritual pure milk desire in order that in it you may

Grow/spread/increase into salvation/deliverance

3        If you tasted that kind/good/loving the Lord

4        To whom coming living stone by humanity on the one hand having been rejected with on the other hand of God chosen valuable/precious.

5        And yourselves like living stone are being built up a spiritual house into a holy priesthood to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

6        Because stands in scripture Look! I put in Mt Zion stone cornerstone chosen valuable/precious and the one believing one on Him may not be put to shame.

7        Therefore to you the honor/respect the ones believing, but to the unbelieving ones stone which were rejecting the ones building this one became into Lord/head of main cornerstone.

8        And stone that which causes stumbling and a rock of that which cause sin who stumble at the word, being disobedient to which also they were placing/setting.

9        But you a chosen nation, royal/palace priesthood, a holy nation for obtaining/possessing, in order that moral excellence/goodness you might proclaim of the one from the darkness you having called/named/invited into his marvelous/wonderful/extraordinary light.

10    Who at last not a nation but now a nation of God, the ones having not received mercy, but now having received mercy.

11    Beloved, I encourage like an aliens/strangers and refugees to abstain from the belongings to this world desire/lust which they served as soldiers against the soul.

12    The manner of life of you in the Gentiles having good in order that where in they speak evil of you like wrongdoers/criminals by the good deeds seeing/observing they might glorify to God in day of visitation.

13    You all submit! To all humans creation because the Lord if whether to King like being of more value

14    Or to governors/rulers/princess like by him being sent into rendering of justice of wrongdoers/criminals but praise of ones who do what is good.

15    Because so is the will of God doing good to silence the fools of people/humanity, lacking spiritual perception.

16    Like a free person and not like a covering having of the wickedness/hateful feelings the freedom/liberty but like God’s slaves.

17    Honor! All men. The brotherhood Love! Fear! God. The King honor!



Genre I Peter 1:22 through 2:17 is part of a letter written to declare new birth, the assurance that God is eternal, the need for purity and obedience to both God and the government of this world.


Authorship unknown, but it was probably written at the end of the first century to alien residents in Asia Minor. (Ehrman)


Biblical Cross-References: The author of first Peter relied heavily on both Old and New Testament writing to support his argument.  I Peter parallels Mathew 21:42 in verses 2:4 and 2:7,

which is the parable of the tenants were the son is rejected and killed.  Thus for non-believers, Christ is the capstone.  Psalm 118:22 parallels 2:7 “The stone the builders rejected has became the capstone.”

            The author uses Daniel 6:26 to emphasizes to the reader we have a living God.  It is a living God that rescued Daniel from the Lion.  There are also cross-references in Isaiah 40:8 of a living God eternal verse the plants and flowers that perish.  Isaiah 28:16 is used as a parallel to verses 2:4 and 2:5, God is sovereign, the stone of Zion, he is the tested stone, the precious cornerstone, a sure foundation.


Overview My section of I Peter is concerned with reinforcing that Christ is the living word of God, which is eternal and immortal. Because of Christ eternal we are purified, we must stay away from wickedness.  Christ is described as a living stone that was rejected by humanity but chosen by God.  Because God has chosen him, he is a precious valuable stone. Through Jesus, God is preparing for us a Spiritual oikoj into a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.  We have been invited into the light of Jesus.  We must refrain from all types of wrongdoing because we believe in the precious stone. We are royal priests of God who are to be God’s slaves.  We are to honor all people, love humanity, and fear God.  The author wants the reader to be clear that humanity is not at all like Christ or God.  Humanity is compared to grass that fades away where Christ is the eternal seed.  We are newborn in Christ and dependent on his pure milk.

Through the chosen one of God, the Gentiles became the chosen people of God, instead of the Jews who rejected Christ. It seems like I Peter is not concerned with the resurrection of a body so much as emphasizing Jesus as immortal and is God’s Chosen.

1) What is a spiritual sacrifice?

2)      What is a royal priesthood? Is it God’s servant/slave?

1 Peter 2: 18 - 3:7

To Be Provided by RR

1 Peter 3:8 - 4:6
Provided by JR


Step I (Initial) Acquaintance (1Peter 6


Comparison of 1Peter 3













Are not afraid with Any  amazement

Do not give way to fear

Let nothing terrify you



Dwell with them according to knowledge

Be considerate as you live with your wives

Live considerately with your wives



As unto the weaker vessel

As the weaker partner

As the weaker sex



That ye should inherit a blessing

So that you may inherit a blessing

That you may obtain a blessing



That asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with Meekness and fear

Who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have.  But do this with Gentleness and respect

Calls you to account for the hope that is in you, yet do it With gentleness and reverence



Whereas they speak evil of you, as of evildoers

So that those who speak maliciously against your good behavior

When you are abused, those who revile your good behavior









For Christ also hath once suffered for sins

For Christ died for sins once for all

For Christ also died for sins once for all



The just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God

The righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God

The righteous for the unrighteous that he might bring us to God



Being put to death in the flesh

He was put to death in the body

Being put to death in the flesh



But quickened by the Spirit

But made alive by the Spirit

But made alive in the spirit



By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison;

through whom also he went and preached to the spirits in prison


in which he went and preached to the spirits in prison,



Which sometime were disobedient

Who disobeyed long ago

Who formerly did not obey



When once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing

When God waited patiently in the days of Noah while the ark was being built

When God’s patience waited in the days of Noah during the building of the ark



Wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water

In it only a few people, eight in all, were saved through water

In which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water



The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us

And this water symbolizes baptism that now saves you also

Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you






(Not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,)

Not the removal of dirt from the body but the pledge of a good conscience toward God

Now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a clear conscience



By the resurrection of Jesus Christ:

It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ,

Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,



 Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God;

Who has gone into heaven and is at God’s right hand--

Who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God,



Angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him

With angels, authorities and powers in submission to him





With angels, authorities, and powers subject to him.




Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin;


Therefore, since Christ suffered in his body, arm yourselves also with the same attitude, because he who has suffered in his body is done with sin.

Since therefore Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves with the same thought, for whoever has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin,



That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.


As a result, he does not live the rest of his earthly life for evil human desires, but rather for the will of God.

So as to live for the rest of the time in the flesh no longer by human passions but by the will of God



For the time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, reveling, banqueting, and abominable idolatries:


For you have spent enough time in the past doing what pagans choose to do living in debauchery, lust, drunkenness, orgies, carousing and detestable idolatry.

Let the time that is past suffice for doing what the Gentiles like to do, living in licentiousness, passions, drunkenness, revels, carousing, and lawless idolatry.



Wherein they think it strange that ye run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of you:


They think it strange that you do not plunge with them into the same flood of dissipation, and they heap abuse on you.

They are surprised that you do not now join them in the same wild profligacy, and they abuse you;



Who shall give account to him that is ready to judge the quick and the dead.


But they will have to give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.

But they will give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.



For for this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the Spirit.


For this is the reason the gospel was preached even  to those who are now dead, so that they might be judged according to men in regard to the body, but live according to God in regard to the spirit.

For this is why the gospel was preached even to the dead, that though judged in the flesh like men, they  might live in the spirit like God.




Textual Criticism:

            In verse 18, there is a diversity of readings of the text.  The 27th edition of the Nestle-Aland text differs from the 25th edition. In verse 18 there are five possible choices for the beginning of this verse regarding Christ’s suffering or dying for sins.  The one with the most first-order evidence is peri amartiwn uper hmwn apefanen or “concerning sins on our behalf he died.”  Further, in this verse “in order that we all (hmaj) may be brought to God,” instead of the you’all (umaj) that is chosen by the Nestle-Aland.  I have chosen the we’all for uniformity with verse 18.

In the King James Version of the comparisons that I chose, King James added uper hmwn even though there were more first-order witness for omitting it, as the Nestle-Aland text has done.

            In verse 22, Nestle-Aland has added tou (the-g m s) to the 27th edition; it was not in the 25th edition.  The text is supported by evidence of seven first-order witnesses, which is more evidence than the prior edition’s rendering supported.  The prior rendering only had three first-order witnesses for evidence.


Rough Translation:

6                    As Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him Lord, of whom you became doing good and not fearing any intimidation.

7                    The husbands likewise, dwelling with tem according to knowledge as with a weaker vessel the female, showing them honor as also being coheirs of the grace of life, so as not to be hindered the prayers of you.

8                    Now the summary, all be of one mind, sympathetic, loving the brothered ones, tenderhearted and humble minded.

9                    Not rendering evil for evil or abuse for abuse, but on the contrary blessing, because to this you were called that you may inherit a blessing.

10                For the one wanting to love life and to see good days let him stop the tongue from evil and the lips not to speak deceit,

11                And let him turn away from evil and let him do good.  Let him seek peace and pursue it;

12                Because the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous ones and the ears of him are open to the prayers of them, But the face of the Lord is against the ones doing evil.

13        And who is the one treating you badly[1] if eager (ya’ll) might become of good[2]?

14        But if ya’ll suffer on account of righteousness, (ya’ll are) blessed ones.  But ya’ll should not fear the fear of them nor should ya’ll be frightened/disturbed.

15                “But make holy/sanctify the Lord” Christ in ya’ll’s hearts, always ready to defend verbally every request (by/with respect to) ya’ll’s word/deed/command concerning the hope in ya’ll[3].

16                But with gentleness/humility and fear, having good conscience, in order that in whatever (way) you are all being slandered, the ones mistreating/insulting ya’ll (for) the good conduct/manner of life Christ, they may/shall be humiliated/put to shame.

17                For it is more excellent (to suffer) doing good, if the desire of God should wish, than to suffer for doing wrong.

18                Also “Christ died (suffered unto death) on behalf of us concerning our sins[4], being righteous over evil, in order that we[5] all might be brought to God having been killed, on the one hand, with respect to flesh, but on the other hand, having been given life with respect to spirit[6]:

19                By/in which (spirit) after having gone to the spirits in prison, he preached,

20                Ones having formerly been disobedient while the long-suffering God was anxiously expecting in the days of Noah, being equipped with an ark, into which (ark) a few, that is souls, were rescued/brought safely through water.

21                And as a counterpart now for ya’ll, baptism saves, which (baptism) is not a removal of dirt of the flesh, but an answer made to God from a good/useful conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,

22                Who is at the right hand of God, having gone toward into heaven with angels and authorities and powers being subject to him[7].

Chapter 4:1-6

1                    Therefore, Christ has suffered[8] in the flesh[9] so arm yourselves with the same intent: for the one suffering in the flesh [is] human desires but in the will of God[10]. 

2                    In order to live the time remaining no longer [in] human desires but in the will of God[11].

3                    Having walked in licentiousness, lusts, drunkenness, reveling, orgies, and forbidden idolatry, the time has [already] been sufficient to accomplish the purpose of the Gentiles.

4                    Slandering [you], they are surprised that you [are] no [longer] running with them into this same flood of debauchery[12].

5                    They will [have to] give an account to the one preparing to have judgment upon the living and the dead.

6                    For this [reason] the good news was preached even to the dead, that though they may be judged as humans in the flesh, they may live in the Spirit, as [does] God[13].

Genre:  The genre of 1Peter is that of a letter.  It touches on various doctrines and speaks about the Christian life and duties. People vary in their opinions as to the themes.  It has been characterized as a letter of separation, of suffering and persecution, of suffering and glory, of hope, of pilgrimage, of courage, and as a letter dealing with the true grace of God.  My portion deals with exhortations to Holiness of life, responsibilities of the people, the Church and the Elders; and suffering for doing good and living for God.


Personal Interaction: My interest in these verses lies with the spirit and the body.  In verse 18 Christ died for sins and he was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit, through whom he went and preached to the spirits in prison…What does it mean for the body to die and the spirit to live?  (Relating this to humans, does our body literally release the spirit when it falls in death?)

            Who were the spirits in prison?  Where was the prison?  Why was the prison?  Why did Christ stop off at the prison?  This must be a really big event for it to be mentioned.

            What does 1Peter mean by “but the pledge of a good conscience toward God?”

            What does he who “has suffered in his body is done with sin” mean?  This is where the definition of suffering intrigues me.  Are we to physically die for Christ in order to be free from sin, to suffer unto death? How does verse 4:2 fit?  This verse makes it sound as if suffering is not unto death.

            Who are the living and the dead in verse 6?  Is this living and dead in Christ? What does this mean?







Praise to God for His Grace and Salvation


Exhortations to Holiness of life


Responsibilities of the people


Responsibilities of the Church & Elders


The Purposes of the Letter


Closing Greetings




Biblical References: In 1Peter, pascwn, the word suffering is used in verses 2:19 and 2:23 (verb participle present active nominative masculine singular.) In verse 2Timothy 1:12, pascw, the word suffer is used (verb indicative present active 1st person singular.).  The TDONT is clear that the uniform use and sense is that this suffering is to death (p913, 916 Vol.V.)  This supports a translation of “suffering unto death” instead of simply “suffering” or “dying.”

In the Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, pascw, defined as suffer; also in the sense suffer death, be killed, [have to] die.(p634)

            Another word I found interesting was the word for prison, fulakh/|( (noun dative feminine singular  common).  This word is used in 1Peter only once in verse3:19.  It is used in the NT a total of 44 times.  The TDONT said that in 1 Peter 3:19, it means prison in the sense of the place where departed spirits are kept. In Rev 18:2 Babylon becomes the place of banishment and the fulakh/| for the unclean spirits and the unclean, hated and nasty birds that are sentenced with them(p244,Vol IX).

In the Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, fulakh/|( is defined as watch, guard; guarding as an action(p867).

[1] Blass, F and Debrunner, A; A Greek Grammar of the New Testament; The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Il; 1961; p 179.

[2] Parallel pericope: Isaiah 50:9 It is the Sovereign Lord who helps me.  Who is he that will condemn me; They will all wear out like a garment; the moths will eat them up.

[3] Parallel pericope: Colossians 4:6 Let your conversation be always full of grace, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how to answer everyone.


[4] Text critical deviation. See Textual Criticism.

[5] Text critical deviation. See Textual Criticism.

[6] Parallel pericope: John 6:63 The Spirit gives life; the flesh counts for nothing.  The words I have spoken to you are spirit and they are life. 


Parallel pericope: Galatians 1:4 Who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father. (Niv Study Bible: Present evil age- The present period of the world’s history.  In contrast to the age to come, this present age is characterized by wickedness.)


Niv Study Bible: Cf 3:5-6,8. Are spirit and…life.  Are the Spirit at work producing life. (John 3:5-8:  5]Jesus answered, “I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit.  6]Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit.  You should not be surprised at my saying, 7]You must be born again.  8]The wind blows wherever it pleases.   You hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going.  So it is with everyone born of the Spirit.”)


Compare with: Ephesians 2:12 In him and through faith in him we may approach God with freedom and confidence.


Compare with: Hebrews 9:26 Then Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world.  But now he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself.


Compare with: Hebrews 9:28 So Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.


[7] See Textual Criticism.

Parallel pericope: Ephesians 1:20 Which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms. (Niv Study Bible: right hand.  The symbolic place of highest honor and authority).

Parallel pericope: Acts 1:10 They were looking intently up into the sky as he was going, when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them.  Niv Study Bible: two men dressed in white.  A common description of angels.

Parallel pericope: Hebrews 1:4 So he became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs.

Parallel pericope: Hebrews 2:8And put everything under his feet.  In putting everything under him, God left nothing that is not subject to him.  Yet at present we do not see everything subject to him.  (Niv Study Bible: Everything. God’s purpose from the beginning was that man should be sovereign in the creatively realm, subject only to God.  Due to sin, that purpose of God has not yet been fully realized.  Indeed, men are themselves “in slavery”.)

[8] Has-suffered paqontoj: participle aorist active, genitive masculine singular, of pascw. In the  41 occurrences of this root in the NT, 11 are in 1Peter.

[9] Flesh sarx (root) occurs  in 1Peter 3:18 above as well as 1Peter 1:22-25 and 1Peter 2:11.

1:22-25 Now that you have purified your souls by your obedience to the truth so that you have genuine mutual love, love one another deeply from the heart.  You have been born anew, not of perishable but of imperishable seed, through the living and enduring word of God.  “All Flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of grass.  The grass withers, and the flower falls, but the word of the Lord endures forever.”  That word is the good news that was announced to you. 2:11 Beloved, I urge you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the desires of the flesh that wage war against the soul.


These verses show that life in the flesh is subject to sinful human desire (2:11) but that you have new life in the spirit (1:22-25).

[10] Parallel pericope for 1Peter 4:1:  2Kings 5:14 So he went down and dipped himself in the Jordan seven times, as the man of God had told him, and his flesh was restored and became clean like that of a young boy. (Niv Study Bible: As he obeyed God’s word, Naaman received the gift of God’s grace. Naaman is here a sign to disobedient Israel that God’s blessing is found only in the path of trustful obedience.)

Parallel pericope: Romans 6:2 By no means! We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer? (Niv Study Bible: As we fell into sin and became subject to death in father Adam, so we now have died and been raised again with Christ—which baptism symbolized.)


[11] Parallel pericope for 1Peter 4:2:  1John 2:16 For everything in the world—the cravings of sinful man, the lust of his eyes and the boasting of what he has and does—comes not from the Father but from the world.


[12] Parallel pericope: James 2:7 Are they not the ones who are slandering the noble name of him to whom you belong?

[13] Parallel pericope:  Romans 8:10 But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, yet your spirit is alive because of righteousness. (Niv Study Bible: Even a Christian’s body is subject to physical death, the consequence of sin, your spirit is alive.  On this reading, “body”  is understood because of righteousness,  as in 7:24 (Body of death. Figurative for the body of sin that hung on him like a corpse and from which he could not gain freedom.)  Because the spirit of the Christian has been justified, it is not subject to death as is his body. The Christian is indwelt by the life-giving Spirit as a result of his justification.
















1 Peter 4: 7 - 4:19
Provided by SKC

Comparison of Translations



1 Peter Ch.4





keep sane and sober for your prayers

sober, watch unto prayer

be calm, self-controlled men of prayer


hold unfailing your love

have fervent charity

have real deep love


employ it for one another

even so minister the same one to another

serve one another


as one who utters oracles of God

let him speak as oracles of God

if any of you is a preacher then he should preach his message as from God


to prove you

to try you

come to test your faith


a wrongdoer, or a mischief-maker

evildoer, or as a busybody

rogue or busy-body


Begin with the household of God

begin in the house of God

is beginning at his own household


go right entrust their souls to a faithful Creator

keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator

commit their souls to the faithful Creator, and go on doing all the good they can


            Rough Translation (imperatives underlined- imperatives are they how to live a new life?)

4.7            Of all things now the end has drawn near, think sensibly therefore and be self-controlled in your prayer.

4.8            Before all things among yourselves love fervently having, because love hides a multitude of sins.

4.9            [be] Hospitable to one another without complaint,

4.10        each one according as he received a gift to each other it ministering as good stewards of varied grace of God.

4.11        If anyone speaks, as though eloquence of God, if anyone ministers as by strength which supplies God in all things may be glorified God through Jesus Christ, to whom is the glory and dominion into the ages of the ages, amen.

4.12        Beloved, do not be surprised the among you fiery trial a test for you coming, as a strange thing happening to you

4.13        But in so far as you participate in the sufferings of Christ, rejoice, that also in the revelation of the glory of him you may rejoice, being glad.

4.14        If you are reproached in name of Christ, blessed ones, because the spirit of glory and the of God spirit upon you rests.

4.15        Not for any of you let endure as a murderer or a thief or an evildoer or as a busybody;

4.16        But if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in this matter.

4.17        Because the time to begin the judgement from the house of God, and if firstly from us, what the end of the ones disobeying the good news of God?

4.18        And if the righteous man with difficulty is saved, the ungodly and sinner where will appear?

4.19          Therefore indeed the ones suffering according to the will of God, to a trustworthy creator let them commit their souls in doing good.


Textual Criticism

v.8  Present tense versus future tense:  kaluyei represents majority of texts p72 a majority texts, but a few more Alexandrian texts A B K y have present tense kaluptei.  Love “will cover” a multitude of sins in the future tense may lead to an eschatological hope?

v.16  Matter versus name:  merei  represents P, 049, K and Majority Text but earlier Alexandrian texts list onomati p72 a A B y33.  More Alexandrian sources lean toward let him glorify God in this “name”, but it carries just a little different nuance with let him glorify God in this “matter” of suffering. 



5:7-11              Living for God/ doxology

Peter is exhorting his fellow early church Christians to live a life above approach in their love for one another and not be surprised when they are persecuted and reviled for their faith


5:12-19            Suffering in the name of Christ

The early church will not only endure suffering but will also be vindicated and be exalted by Jesus at the proper time.


Personal Interaction and Salient Points – How to…  How to get to…

1.       It seems Peter is exhorting the early church to live a life above approach in very strong language with so many imperatives on how to live on earth as it is in heaven?

2.       With so many imperatives on how to live, Peter seems to say make sure your suffering is not because of wrong doing.

3.       The textual criticism, I think, opens another door of eschatological hope that love does/will cover a multitude.  Is this only available as part of new creation or resurrection or is this something to live and perfect now?

4.        In 4.11 “if anyone speaks, as though it were the eloquence of God” does this represent a way we can participate in Jesus’ suffering and in his resurrection?

5.        In 4.19, the exhortation “commit” their souls in doing good reminds of Christ committing his spirit to God on the cross?

6.        To be part of the household of God, does that mean not to strike back?  Can only a resurrected Jesus respond by striking back with love and good deeds?  Or is Jesus passing the baton of how to live from his life and resurrection to his church, his bride?

7.        To be perfected, to be true love in deed, does that mean to truly participate with Christ in suffering?  Is that the only way to get there from here?  Certainly Peter puts great emphasis on community in persevering against persecution.  Can we only be refined by fire?

8.        If in our suffering, Christians have the hope of overcoming suffering and ultimately rejoicing with Christ, then how bad is it going to be for those who do not know Christ and revel in our present suffering?  How we react to suffering during trails of faith says a great deal to others or those who initiate our suffering?

1 Peter Chapter 5
Provided by GG

Gerald Goodridge


1 Peter 5


Step 1 - Acquaintance  



            A.  Comparison of translation.


            I compared the Living Bible, the RSV, and the KJV.  I have also included the complete translation of Chapter 5 as recorded in A Commentary on I Peter, by Leonhard Goppelt, which was translated and augmented by Dr. Alsup.  The variances in the assorted translationsp are broad.  For this reason I have included the bulk of the text from the various translations.





1 And now, a word to you elders of the church. I, too, am an elder; with my own eyes I saw Christ dying on the cross; and I, too, will share his glory and his honor when he returns. Fellow elders, this is my plea to you:2 Feed the flock of God;



. 4 and when the Head Shepherd comes, your reward will be a never-ending share in his glory and honor.



5 You younger men, follow the leadership of those who are older. And all of you serve each other with humble spirits, for God gives special blessings to those who are humble, but sets himself against those who are proud.


6 If you will humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, in his good time he will lift you up.




1 So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ as well as a partaker in the glory that is to be revealed.2 Tend the flock of God that is your charge,

.4 And when the chief Shepherd is manifested you will obtain the unfading crown of glory.


5 Likewise you that are younger be subject to the elders. Clothe yourselves, all of you, with humility toward one another, for "God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble."



6 Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that in due time he may exalt you.




1 The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:2 Feed the flock of God which is among you,



4 And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.



5 Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.



6 Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:




7 Let him have all your worries and cares, for he is always thinking about you and watching everything that concerns you.

9 Stand firm when he attacks. Trust the Lord; and remember that other Christians all around the world are going through these sufferings too.



10 After you have suffered a little while, our God, who is full of kindness through Christ, will give you his eternal glory. He personally will come and pick you up, and set you firmly in place, and make you stronger than ever.


11 To him be all power over all things, forever and ever. Amen.


12 I am sending this note to you through the courtesy of Silvanus who is, in my opinion, a very faithful brother. I hope I have encouraged you by this letter, for I have given you a true statement of the way God blesses. What I have told you here should help you to stand firmly in his love.


13 The church here in Rome --she is your sister in the Lord--sends you her greetings; so does my son Mark.


14 Give each other the handshake of Christian love. Peace be to all of you who are in Christ.  1 Peter 5:1-14 (Living)


7 Cast all your anxieties on him, for he cares about you.



9 Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same experience of suffering is required of your brotherhood throughout the world.


10 And after you have suffered a little while, the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ, will himself restore, establish, and strengthen you.


11 To him be the dominion for ever and ever. Amen.


12 By Silva'nus, a faithful brother as I regard him, I have written briefly to you, exhorting and declaring that this is the true grace of God; stand fast in it.




13 She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings; and so does my son Mark.


14 Greet one another with the kiss of love. Peace to all of you that are in Christ.  1 Peter 5:1-14 (RSV)


7 Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.



9 Whom resist steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.


10 But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, establish, strengthen, settle you


11 To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.


12 By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand.





13 The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.


14 Greet ye one another with a kiss of charity. Peace be with you all that are in Christ Jesus. Amen.  1 Peter 5:1-14 (KJV)







Translation by Dr. John Alsup


1.  Now I admonish the elders among you as a co-elder and witness of Christ’s sufferings and as a participant in the glory soon to be revealed.

2. Shepherd the flock of God among you and work as overseers, not out of compulsion, but willingly — in conformity with God — not for shameful gain, but with dedication,

3.  Not as those who rule over what is allotted, but as those who become examples for the flock.

4.  Then when the chief Shepherd appears you will receive the unfading garland of glory.

5.  Similarly, you who are younger, make yourself subject to the elders.  All, in relation to one another, put on humility.  For “God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble.” (Prov.3:34)

6.  So humble yourselves now under God’s mighty hand, so that he may exalt you in the (last) time.

7.  Cast all your care on him, since he cares for you.

8.  Be sober, stay awake!  Your adversary, the devil, stalks about like a roaring lion and seeks whom he can devour.

9.  Resist him steadfastly in faith, knowing that the same sufferings have come on your brotherhood in the (whole) world.

10.  But the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ — you who suffer for a short time — will himself restore, strengthen, empower, and establish you.

11.  His is the power forever.  Amen.

12.  Through Silvanus, a faithful brother in my judgment, I have written to you briefly, summoning and giving witness that this is the true grace of God, so that you may stand in it.

13.  Greetings to you from the co-elect (church) in Babylon and from Mark, my son.

14.  Greet one another with the kiss of  love.  Peace to all of you who are in Christ.


B.  Textual Criticism

In my review I did not observe any critical textual comments pertinent to the resurrection of Jesus, The Christ. 


C.  Rough Translation


1.  So I urge elders in your (midst), the fellow-Elder and witness of the one of The Christ sufferings, and the one of the one destined to be revealed of a shared glory.


2.  You’ll tend the one in your flock of God, you take care (of them) not under compulsion but deliberately according to God’s will, neither with greediness for material gain but eagerly. 


3.  Not as having power over the lot (or place) but model (behavior/attitudes) becoming of the flock.


4.  And having been made known of the Chief Shepherd you will be repaid the unfading crown of the glory.


5.  Likewise, young ones, you put yourself under for Elders.  All and for each other you’ll put on the humility, for (the) God opposes (the) proud and grants grace for (the) humble.


6.  Therefore, you humble yourself under the authority of the strong power of God, in order that you might be lifted up in time.


7.  All your care throw upon him, for to him it is a care about you.


8.  Be sober, watch.  The enemy of you the devil like a roaring lion walks seeking anyone to swallow.


9.  Who resist firmly for the faith having understood that he of the suffering, the one in of the world for your brotherhood to be completed.


10.  But the God of all grace, the one having called you’ll into the everlasting of his glory in Christ Jesus, having suffered little yourself he will restore, he will make firm, he will strengthen, he will establish firmly.


11.  To him the power into the ages, Amen.


12. By means of Silvanus your faithful brother, as I count by means of small I wrote, having encouraged and testified this is true grace of the God into that place.


13.  She writes you’ll the one in Babylon, who is also chosen, and Mark my son.


14.  Greet one another with a kiss of love.  Peace to all of you the ones in Christ


Step II – Disposition


a.  Description of literature


This closing chapter of Peter’s letter to those exiled is a final petition for endurance with a promise of shared glory. The appeal is directive in nature.  First, the leaders of the exiled church are reminded to take care of God’s people.  Specific instructions are given as to attitude, motivation, and expectation.  The younger ones are addressed second.  They are reminded to be humble to the leaders and each other.  Finally all are reminded to be humble under God.


Before the letter closes, Peter invites the church to depend on God, resist the devil, endure whatever suffering they might face, and God of all grace will give each a share of glory.  The letter closes by identifying Silvanus as the writer, and with greetings from “She who is at Babylon,” and Peter’s son Mark.   


B.  Questions in verse order


Verse 1. How structured was the church at this point?  And what are the requirements for Eldership.


Peter claims to be a witness of the sufferings of Christ.  After he denied Christ, did he disguise himself as not to be spotted?


Verse 2/3. Could the office of a bishop, in those days, and in the time of exile, be a lucrative office or an office of power?


Verse 4.  fanerwqwntov  manifested --- appears --- revealed --- what is the expectation here?  Is this the second coming of Christ or is this a presence we can benefit from now?


Verse 5.   Who are the younger?  Are these all that are not elders? Or elders in training? 


Verses 6 – 9.  How much power is attributed to God, the devil, and self?     


Verse 10.  What is the degree of the exiles’ sufferings?  And why is suffering necessary before restoration?


Step  III Composition


I found the general tone and format of 1 Peter to be that of a parental letter. One gets a genuine sense of concern for the exiles from the writer and specific instructions are given for their well-being. However, in this closing chapter, 1 Peter states his relationship as that of a peer to the leaders.  Never the less, 1 Peter issues directions.  The directions are addressed first to those that are senior and then to the younger.    


1 Peter’s message to the church in this closing chapter is very much like the message Luke sends us in Acts chapter 20: 28 –32.  From a comparison of the two, I think it is fair to deduct that both passages derived from the same influence.


I also find links to the Old Testament (OT).  The images of flocks and shepherds are reminiscent of Psalm 23 (among other references) and the images of a roaring lion can be found in Psalm 22 among a multitude of other OT references.


Images of resurrection can be seen in verse 4 and 10.  In verse 4 we find references to the return of Christ at which time the faithful will receive a “crown of glory.” There are many crowns mentioned in Scripture, including the crown of life and the crown of righteousness. What is a crown of glory? I believe that it means we are going to share some day in Christ’s glory.


Verse 10 tells of the faithful restoration and strengthening unto eternal glory in Christ.  Again this tells us we will have no glory in ourselves. The church is like the moon, which simply reflects the light of the sun. Our glory will be only reflected glory, but we in Christ are going to share in that glory.


Points For Discussion:


Historicity & Tradition  --- Structure of the Church, the Hellenistic world the Diaspora (OT Links)


Resurrection Images

            Verse 4


fanerwqe,ntoj verb participle aorist passive genitive masculine  singular

fanero,w      make known, reveal, show; make evident or plain;  pass. be revealed or made known; be evident or plain; appear, reveal  oneself  


avrcipoi,menoj noun genitive masculine singular common

avrcipoi,mhn, enoj    chief shepherd  


komiei/sqe verb indicative future middle 2nd person plural

komi,zw    (fut. midd. komi,somai and komiou/mai) bring, buy;  midd. receive, obtain; receive back, be paid back  


            Verse 10


evn Cristw/  noun dative masculine singular proper

Cristo,j, ou/ m Christ (lit. the Anointed One, equivalent to the  Hebrew Messiah)  


katarti,sei verb indicative future active 3rd person singular

katarti,zw mend, restore, set right, make complete (midd.  strive for perfection 2 Cor 13.11); act. and midd. make, prepare, supply  ( kathrtisme,noj fully trained Lk 6.40)  


sthri,xei verb indicative future active 3rd person singular

sthri,zw strengthen, make firm, establish; fix, set up (Lk  16.26); to. pro,swpon jÅ make a firm resolve (Lk 9.51)  


sqenw,sei verb indicative future active 3rd person singular

sqeno,w strengthen  


qemeliw,sei verb indicative future active 3rd person singular 

qemelio,w found; establish firmly