(V. 8) And to the heavenly messenger of
the church in Smyrna write: These things says the first One and the last
("eschatos") One who became dead and lived (became alive>ingressive aorist?).
(v. 9) I know your (singular) turmoil and poverty, but you (singular) are
rich, and [I know] the blasphemy out of the ones speaking regarding themselves
to be Jews and they are not, but [are] a synagogue of Satan. (v. 10) Nothing
(in no way?) fear which things you (singular) are about to suffer. Behold,
Diabolos is about to throw out of you (plural) into prison in order that
you (plural) may be tested and you (plural) shall have turmoil (within
a time period of) ten days. Become (singular) faithful unto death and I
shall give to you (singular) the crown of life!
(v. 11) The one having ears let that one hear what thing the s(S)pirit says to the churches. The One triumphing shall not at all be wronged (harmed?) out of the death, the second one.
(V. 12) And to the heavenly messenger of the church in Pergamon write: These things says the One having (holding?) the sword, the two-edged, sharp one. (v. 13) I know where you (singular) live ("down-house"), where the throne of Satan [is}, and you (singular) are strong with respect to my name and I shall not deny my faith and (even?) in the days (of) Antipas, the my-witness, the my-faithful-one, who died (was killed) from you (plural = of your number?), where Satan lives ("down-households"); (v. 14) but I have against (?) you (singular) small things because you (singular) have there (ones = those who?) having strength (plural ptcp.) with respect to the teaching (didactic?) of Balaam, who gave to Balak to cast a scandal before the sons of Israel to eat an idol-sacrifice and to engage in destructive sexuality. (v. 15) Thus you (singular, with emphasis) also have (ones, cf. v. 14) having strength with respect to the teaching (didactic?) of the Nikolaitans; similarly (here) (v. 16), therefore, repent (singular)! If not, I come to you suddenly (synonym to "en tachei 1:1?) and I shall make war (do battle?) with them in the sword of my mouth.
(v. 17) The one having ears, let that
one hear what things the s(S)pirit says to the churches. To the One triumphing
I shall give to him of (partitive genitive?) the Manna, the one which was
hidden, and I shall give to him a white stone and upon the stone
a new name having been written what thing no one knows except the one receiving
(V. 18) And to the heavenly messenger of the church in Thyateiros write: These things says the Son of God, the One having his eyes as a tongue of fire and his feet similar to gold ore. (v. 19) I know your (singular) works and love and faith and service (deaconate?) and your (singular) patience, and your (singular) works [are] the last ("eschatos") things greater (than) the first things. (v. 20) But I have against (?) you (singular) that you (singular) permit (release, tolerate, forgive?) the woman Jezebel, the one speaking with regard to herself a prophetess and teaches and corrupts (leads astray?) my slaves to practice destructive sexuality (fornicate?) and to eat (consume?) idol-sacrifice. (v. 21) And I gave to her a time-duration in order that she may repent and (but?) she wishes not to repent out of her destructive sexuality. (v. 22) Behold (Now hear this!?), I throw her into recline (a couch?) and the ones adultering with her into great turmoil (conflict?), if not (lest?) they shall repent out of her works, (v. 23) and her children I shall kill in death. And all the churches shall know that I am the One scrutinizing minds (lit. kidneys, anc. symbol of the inner life?) and hearts, and I shall give you (plural), each according to your (plural) works. (v. 24) To you (plural) I say, you who remain among the Thyateirans, however so many as do not have (hold?) this teaching (didactic?), whosoever (plural) did not know the deep things (= ?) of Satan - as they say - I cast not upon you (plural) another heavy thing, (v. 25) except, regarding what thing you (plural) have, have strength until which (time? critical hour?) I might come (aor. subj. of "heko" t.t. for coming of the deity?).
(v. 26) And the One triumphing and
the One keeping until the end (times? critical moments?) my works to that
One I shall give authority upon the nations (v. 27) and "he shall shepherd
them in an iron rod (staff?) as the vessels, the ceramic ones, are shattered,"
(v. 28) as even I have received (pf. of "lambano") from (alongside?) my
Father I shall also give to that One the star, the early one.
(v.29) The one having an ear let that one hear what the s(S)pirit says to the churches!
Chapter 3:1 And to the heavenly messenger of the church in Sardesis write: These things says the One having (holding?) the seven s(S)pirits of God and the seven stars. I know your (plural) works that you (singular) have a name that you (singular) live and you (singular) are dead. (v. 2) become being vigilant (singular periphrastic imperative?!! =ptcp. + verb equiv. to "to be") and strengthen (singular aor. imp.) the remaining things which were about to die, for I have not found (discovered?) your (singular) works having been fulfilled (completed?) before my God. (v. 3) Be remembering (pres. sing. imp.), therefore, how you (singular) have received and heard, and be keeping (pres. sing. imp.) and repent (aor. sing. imp.); therefore, if you (singular) are not vigilant I shall come (NB. not "e!rcomai" but "h@kw") as a thief and you (singular) shall surely not (double negative!) know what sort of hour I shall come (NB. as above) upon you (singular). (v. 4) But you (singular) have a few names in Sardesis which did not defile (stain?) their garments and they shall walk with me in white (ones) because they are worthy.
(v. 5) The One triumphing thus shall be clothed with respect to white (ones = garments?) and his/her name shall not at all (double negative) be wiped out (erased?) out of the book of life and I shall confess his/her name before my Father and before his heavenly messengers. (v. 6) The one having ears let that one hear what the s(S)pirit says to the churches.
(V. 7) And to the heavenly messenger of
the church in Philadelphia write: These things says the Holy One, the True
One, the One having (holding?) the key of David, the One opening and no
one shall lock up (cf. word play>"key" as noun and verb!) and (the) Closing
One and no one opens. (v. 8) "I know your (singular) works, behold, I have
given before you (singular) a door having been opened, which no one is
able to lock it up (word play as above) because you (singular) have small
power ("duvvnami"" and not "kravto"") and you (singular) kept my word and
did not deny my name. (v. 9) Behold, I shall give out of the synagogue
of Satan, of the ones saying (calling?) themselves to be Jews and are not
but are lying, behold, I shall make them in order that they may come (Gr.
"h@kw", cf. text-critical apparatus!) and may worship before your (singular)
feet and may know (NB. verb form here too!) that I loved you (singular)
, (v. 10) because you (singular) kept the word of my patience (endurance,
durability?), and I shall keep you (singular) out of the hour of the trial
(test?) of the about to be one to come upon the whole inhabited ("earth"
understood) to try (test?) the ones dwelling-down upon the earth. (v. 11)
I come suddenly (Gr. "e!rcomai tacuv"): keep strength (Gr. pres. sing.
imp. of "kratevw"!) regarding what thing you (singular) have in order that
no one may take your (singular) crown!
(v. 12) The One triumphing I shall make that one a pillar (column?) in the temple of my God and that one shall not at all (double negative) go still yet outside and I shall write upon that one the name of my God and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, the one coming down out of heaven from my God, and my name, the new one! (v. 13) The one having an ear let that one hear what the s(S)pirit says to the churches!"
(V. 14) And to the heavenly messenger of
the church in Laodiceia write: These things says the Amen, the Witness,
the Faithful and True One, the Beginning of the Creation of God. (v. 15)
"I know your (singular) works that you (singular) [are] neither cold nor
hot; would that you (singular) were [cf. discussion in BAG, p. 599 from
"ojfeivlw"?] cold or hot! (v. 16) Thus, because you (singular) are lukewarm
(Gr. "cliarov"") and neither hot nor cold I am about to cough you (singular)
up (Gr. "ejmevw" [hapax for NT] not "ptuvw", cf. BAG p. 254) out of my
mouth, (v. 17) because you (singular) say 'I am rich [or, that I am rich...;
also, who is the "I" referent here?] and have become wealthed and have
need with respect to nothing,' and you (singular) do not know that you
(singular) are the wretched-and-miserable-and-begging-and-blind-and-naked-one.
(v. 18) I counsel you (singular) to purchase from (alongside?) me gold
having been fired out of fire in order that you (singular) may become rich,
and [to purchase] white garments in order that the shame of your (singular)
nakedness may be clothed and may not be manifest, and to anoint (Gr. "ejgcrivw"
- rub?) with respect to eye-salve your (singular) eyes in order that you
(singular) may see. (v. 19) I reprove (Gr. "ejlevgcw") and discipline ("paideuvw")
as many as if I love. Be eager (pres. sing. imp. hapax form, cf. "zhlovw"),
therefore, and repent (aor. imp.)! (v. 20) Behold, I have stood ("and am
standing" perf. for present?) upon the door and I knock (Gr. "krouvw");
if anyone hears my voice and opens the door [also] I shall enter
into toward that one and I shall dine with that one and that one with me.
(v. 21) The One Triumphing I shall give to that one to sit with me in (on?) my throne, as I have triumphed and sat (down) with my Father in (on?) his throne". (v. 22) The one having an ear let that one hear what the s(S)pirit says to the churches!
© 1998- Dr. John E. Alsup - all rights reserved
Chapter 4:1 After these things I saw and
behold a door having been opened in the heaven, and the voice, the first
(prior? cf. 1:12?) one which I heard like a trumpet, talking with me, saying,
"Go up there, and I shall show to you (singular) which things are necessary
to become after these things." (v. 2) Immediately (Gr. "Euqevw"") I became
in [the?] s(S)pirit, and behold, a throne was sitting in heaven and upon
the throne being seated (v. 3) even the being-seated-One like in appearance
(Gr. "oJravsi"" not [cf. 1:16] "o!yi"") to a jasper stone and a carnelian,
and a rainbow from around the throne like in appearance (Gr. "oJravsi""
again) to an emerald. (v. 4) And from around the throne thrones twenty-four
and upon the thrones twenty-four elders (Gr. "pres- buvteroi") being seated
having been clothed in white garments and upon their heads golden crowns.
(v. 5) And out of the throne go out bolts of lightning and voices (sounds?)
and claps of thunder, and seven lampstands of fire being on fire before
the throne, which things are the seven s(S)pirits of God, (v. 6) and before
the throne as (Gr. here "wJ"") a transparent-as-glass sea like (Gr.
here "oJmoiva") crystal. And in the middle of the throne and encircling
the throne four living things being full (Gr. "gevmw" = be full > "gemivzw")
of eyes from in front and from behind, (v. 7) and the living thing, the
first one, (was) similar to a lion and the second living thing (was) similar
to a calf and the third living thing having (cf. text-critical apparatus,
agreement?!) the face as (Gr. "wJ"") of a human being and the fourth living
thing (was) similar to an eagle in flight (cf. LXX Job 9:26!). (v.
8) And the four living things, one according to one of them (one by one,
each one?), having above six wings, from around and from inside they are
full of eyes and they have no rest day and night saying:
Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God, the All-Strong-One,
the One who was and the One who is and the Coming One
(v. 9) And when the living things shall give glory and honor and thanksgiving to the One being seated upon the throne, the living One into the ages of ages, (v. 10) the twenty-four elders shall fall down before the One being seated upon the throne and they shall worship the living One into the ages of ages and they shall throw their crowns before the throne saying:
You (singular) are worthy, our Lord
to receive the glory and the honor and the power (Gr. "duvnami"")
because you (singular) created all things
and on account of your (singular) will they were created.
Chapter 5:1 And I saw on the right ("hand"
understood) of the One sitting upon the throne a book having been written
from within and from behind having been sealed by means of seven seals.
(v. 2) And I saw a strong (Gr. "ijscurovn") heavenly messenger preaching
(Gr. "khruvssonta") in a great voice, "Who (is) worthy to open the book
and to loose (break?) its seals?" (v. 3) And no one was able in the heaven
or upon the earth or under the earth to open the book or to view (see?)
it. (v. 4) And I was crying much because no one was found worthy to open
the book or to view (see?) it, (v. 5) and one out of the elders says to
me, "Do not cry, behold, the Lion, the One out of the tribe of Judah, the
root (= ?) of David, triumphed to open the book and its seven seals.
(v. 6) And I saw in the midst of the throne and of the four living tings and in the midst of the elders a lamb standing in place (Gr. "eJsthkov""perf>pres.) as having been slaughtered having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the [seven] s(S)pirits of God having been sent out (t.t. apostolically?) into all the earth. (v. 7) And it [the lamb] went and receive(s)d (Gr. "ei!lhfen" perf. of "lambavnw") out of the right ("hand") of the One sitting upon the throne.
(v. 8) And when he (it?) took the book the four living things and the twenty-four elders fell before the lamb [they] having (holding?) each a harp and golden bowls being full of incense (plural) which are the prayers of the holy ones. (v. 9) And they ode a new ode (sing a new song?) saying (singing?):
Worthy are you (singular) to take
the book and to open its seals
because you (singular) were slaughtered and purchased for God in your blood
out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation
(v. 10) And you made them to our God a kingdom and priests
and they shall rule upon the earth
(v. 11) And I saw and I heard a voice of many heavenly messengers round about the throne (dat. of location as adv. + partitive genitive? cf. BAG p. 457) and the living things and the elders and their number was myriads or myriads and thousands of thousands (v. 12) saying (speaking?) with (by means of) a great voice:
Worthy is the lamb, the One having
been slaughtered, to receive
the power (Gr. "duvnami"") and the wealth and wisdom
and strength (Gr. "ijscuv"") and honor and glory and blessing
(v. 13) And every created thing which (is) in heaven and upon the earth and under the earth and upon the sea and all things in them I heard saying:
To the One sitting upon the throne
and to the lamb (is/be)
the blessing and the honor and the glory and the power (Gr. "kravto"")
into the ages of ages
(v. 14) And the four living things were saying:
And the elders fell and worshiped.
© 1998- Dr. John E. Alsup - all rights reserved
Back to Ongoing Questions
Back to Revelation Home
Chapter 6:1 And I saw when the lamb opened one of the seven seals and I heard one (gen. of numeral with verb of hearing?) out of the four living things saying (speaking? gen. agreement with antecedent?) like a voice (clap?) of thunder:
Come! (sing. imp.)
(v. 2) And I saw and, behold, a white horse
and the One sitting upon him (it?) having a bow and a crown was given to
him and he went out triumphing and in order that he might triumph.
(v. 3) And when he opened the seal, the second one, I heard the second living thing saying:
(v. 4) And another red horse and the One
sitting upon him (it?) it was given to him to receive (to take?) the peace
out of the earth and in order that they might slaughter one another and
a great sword was given to him.
(v. 5) And when he opened the seal, the third one, I heard the third living thing saying:
And I saw and, behold, a black horse and the One sitting upon him (it?) having a yoke in his hand. (v. 6) And I heard like a voice in the midst of the four living things saying (pres. ptcp. agreeing with voice):
A measure of grain of a denarius
(worth?) and three measures barleys
of a denarius (worth?) and regarding the oil and the wine do not do unjustly!
(v. 7) And when he opened the seal, the fourth one, I heard a voice of the fourth living thing saying:
(v. 8) And I saw and, behold, a yellow (blond,
palomino, green?) horse and the One sitting a top (Gr. "ejpavnw") him (it?),
the name to him (was) "Death," and Hades was following (t.t. in "discipleship"?)
with him and authority was given to them upon the fourth of the earth to
kill in the sword and in famine and in death and under (by the agency of?)
the wild animals of the earth.
(v. 9) And when he opened the fifth seal I saw down below the altar the souls of the ones having been slaughtered on account of the word of God and on account of the witness which they were having. (v. 10) And they cried with a great voice saying:
Until when, Master (Despot?), Holy
and True One, do you not judge
and avenge (repay?) our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth?
(v. 11) And a white robe was given to them,
to each, and it has been (is?) said to them in order that they shall rest
yet a short span of time (Gr. "crovno""), until they be fulfilled and their
co- slaves and their brothered-ones, the ones being about to be killed
like also they themselves.
(v. 12) And I saw when he opened the seal, the sixth one, and a great seismic disturbance happened and the sun became black like hair-sackcloth and the entire moon became like blood (v. 13) and the stars of the heaven fell into the earth, like a "syke tree" (fig, sycamore?) throws its unripe fruit under a great wind while being shaken. (v. 14) And the heaven was torn back (divided away?) like a book being rolled (open, up?) and every mountain and island (cf. 1:9) were moved out of their places. (v. 15) And the kings of the earth and the great ones and the rulers of a thousand and the wealthy ones and the strong ones and every slave and freed one hid themselves into the caves and into the rocks of the mountains. (v. 16) "And they say to the mountains and to the rocks, 'Fall (plural) upon us' and 'hide us' from the face of the One sitting upon the throne and from the wrath of the lamb," (v. 17) because the day, the great one of their wrath, went (passed?) and who is able to stand?
7:1 After this thing I saw four heavenly
messengers, having stood (pfc. ptcp. = "still standing" Gr. "histemi")
at the four corners of the earth, being powerful with respect to the four
winds of the earth in order that the wind might not blow upon the earth
nor upon the sea nor upon every tree. (v. 2) And I saw another heavenly
messenger going up from the rising of the sun (= the east) having the seal
of the living God, and he (it?) cried by means of a great voice to the
four heavenly messengers to whom was given to them to do injustice (to
= to do destruction to? Gr. "adikeo") the earth and the sea (v. 3) saying,
"do not do injustice to the earth nor the sea nor the trees until
(used with the subj. cf. BAG p.129) we seal the slaves of our God upon
their foreheads (cf. Gr. "pros-opon" [face] here "met-opon"; also BAG p.
(v. 4) And I heard the number of the ones having been sealed, one hundred forty-four thousands, having been sealed out of every tribe of the sons of Israel:
(v. 5) out of the tribe of Judah twelve thousands having been sealed ones
out of the tribe of Reuben twelve thousands
out of the tribe of Gad twelve thousands
(v. 6) out of the tribe of Ascher twelve thousands
out of the tribe of Nephthalim twelve thousands
out of the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousands
(v. 7) out of the tribe of Symeon twelve thousands
out of the tribe of Levi twelve thousands
out of the tribe of Issachar twelve thousands
(v. 8) out of the tribe of Zebulin twelve thousands
out of the tribe of Joseph twelve thousands
out of the tribe of Benjamin twelve thousands having been sealed
(v. 9) After these things I saw and, behold,
a great crowd, which to number him (= it) no one was able, out of every
nation and [out of] tribes and peoples and tongues having stood (= still
standing) before the throne and before the lamb having been clothed (pl.
pfc. ptcp) with respect to white
robes (Gr. "stolas") and palm branches (Gr. "phoinikes") [were] in their hands. (v. 10) And they cry with a great voice saying,
"Salvation [is/be!] to our God, to the One sitting upon the
throne and to the lamb!"
(v. 11) And all the heavenly messengers have stood (pfc. = "still are standing") encircling the throne and the elders and the four living things and they fell before the throne upon their faces and they worshiped God (v. 12) saying,
"Amen, the blessing (Gr. "eulogia"), and the glory, and the wisdom, and the thanksgiving (Gr. "eucharistia"), and the honor, and the power (Gr. "dynamis"), and the strength (Gr. "ischys") [are/be/belong?] to our God into the ages of the ages (= forever?). Amen.
(v. 13) And one out of the responded saying to me, "These [are] the ones having been clothed (pfc. = "still are clothed") with respect to the robes the white ones, who are they and whence did they come?" (v. 14) And I said to him, "My lord, you know." And he said to me,
"These are the ones coming out of the struggle the great one
and they washed thei robes
and they whitened them in the blood of the lamb
(v. 15) on account of this thing they are before the throne of God
and they serve (Gr."latreuo") him day and night in (among?) in his temple
and the One sitting upon the throne will dwell (Gr. skenoo) over them
(v. 16) they shall not hunger yet nor shall they thirst yet nor shall the sun fall (= set) upon them nor every burning heat (Gr."kauma").
(v. 17) because the lamb the one up in the midst of the throne shall shepherd them and he shall path-lead them upon (= to/at?) the fountains of waters of life and God shall wipe away every tear out of their eyes.
8:1 And when he opened the seal, the seventh one [cf. link to sabbath, week, and hour? BAG, pp. 212f] it became silent in heaven as (Gr. "hos" = approximately? temp. conj.? BAG. p. 899) one-half hour [hapax!].
© 1998- Dr. John E. Alsup - all rights reserved