Lectionary Year A
May 12, 2002
In the preceding pericope (John 16:29-33), Jesus warns of a scattering of
the disciples once "the hour has come". In this world they will suffer
persecution. He is exhorts them to take courage because He has overcome
the world. After this exhortation, our passage begins with Jesus starting
to pray, connected to his exhortation with the words "tauta elalesen
'Iesous, kai eparas tous opfthalmous autou . . .".
In the following pericope (John 17:12-19), the prayer of Jesus continues
focusing on the disciples, asking for protection for them as they remain in
the world. Immediately after this prayer ends, Jesus goes out with his
disciples to a garden across the Kidron Valley as is betrayed by Judas.
(TD) B. ORGANIZATION OF THE COMPOSTIONAL WHOLE
John's differences with the synoptics: no account of the birth of Jesus,
baptism, temptation, Last Supper, Gethsemane, or the ascension. No parable
stories or healings of demoniacs. In John, Jesus' speeches are often a
whole chapter long.
The facts of the life and ministry of Jesus are different in John. The design
of the gospel as a whole is stated by the author in 20:31. Therefore, what
is told in this account of Jesus' life and ministry reveals Jesus as
Messiah, Son of God. God is revealed in Jesus Christ. Jesus provided
access to God in ways never before possible. The frequent "I am"
statements by Jesus in this gospel are a radical claim that Jesus is God
The structure of this gospel is often broken down into two parts:
Chapters   1-12 the book of signs
Chapters 13-20 the book of glory
C. ISSUES OF AUTHORSHIP
This gospel was known in Egypt by 100 A.D (from P52). Its first commentary
was written by Heracleon around 150. John was most likely written at
Ephesus, also maybe Antioch or Alexandria. This gospel is an anonymous
document. Tradition claims (Irenaeus) the author as John the "Son of
Zebedee", the apostle. Many scholars believe it was composed by a disciple
of John who recorded his preaching. The author was a Jewish Christian who wrote for
and in a Jewish Christian community in conflict with synagogue authorities.
The vast majority of converts were now from Hellenistic not Jewish
backgrounds. A crisis may have precipitated the writing of this gospel:
possibly the "putting out of the synagogue" or excommunication as heretics
for those who practiced alternative forms of Judaism (e.g. belief in
Jesus). There are certainly Greek and Gnostic influences in 1st century
Judaism. The work of Philo is one example. Shades of both these influences,
consistant with the religious diversity of the 1st century Mediterranean
world, can be seen in John's writing.
(Kummel, Intro to the NT, pp. 168-174)
a. Beginning with Irenaeus, many have thought the author to be
John son of Zebedee, "the disciple of the Lord", who published
the Gospel in the first century A.D. while in Ephesus.
b. Many modern commentators doubt this, pointing to lack of
coverage in the fourth Gospel of events involving the sons of
Zebedee which are prominent in the Synoptic gospels.
c. Who knows? Kummel argues that the only fairly certain thesis is
that the author at least had close contact with a Palestinian
Christian who had had some kind of participation in the Passion
history of Jesus.
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