Matthew 21:1-11
Lectionary Year A
March 24, 2002
Matthew 21:1-11

Initial Acquaintance/Rough Translation

A. Comparing Translations

(JFC) The Anchor Bible's translation and the New Revised Standard Version differ some, according to these notes:

1 As they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethpage, - AB
When they had come near Jerusalem and had reached Bethpage, - NRSV

by way of the Mount of Olives, - AB
at the Mount of Olives, - NRSV

disciples with instructions: - AB
disciples, 2 saying to them, - NRSV

4 in fulfillment of what was said by the prophet, - AB
to fulfill what had been spoken through the prophet, saying, - NRSV

7 and he sat there. - AB
and he sat on them. - NRSV

8 Most of the crowd spread their own cloaks on the road, - AB
A very large crowd (footnoted: "Or Most of the crowd") spread their cloaks on the road, - NRSV

9 shouted out the words, - AB
were shouting, - NRSV

B. Textual Criticism

(JFC) 2 Some reliable editors read poreuqhte for poreu,esqe, an aorist, active, subjunctive for the received present, middle or passive, imperative. However, more reliable witnesses retain the text as printed, as seems most likely to have been the originally spoken directive. Next, one Alexandrian editor and a majority of manuscripts change kate,nanti to read apenanti, a similar term yet the received version seems to make the description of the village a bit more closely located to the scene where the words are exchanged. And, in as much as the vast majority of more reliable editions retain the text as received, that seems to be the more likely original. Then, for avga,gete,, an aorist, active, imperative, a few witnesses have agete, a present imperative, which does seem more sensible and, even if only a few redactors suggest it, the present tense seems preferable.

3 In the saying, ~O ku,rioj auvtw/n crei,an e;cei, some few witnesses read, autou, a genitive singular of the pronoun referring to Jesus in this case. It could be original but not any more likely so than the printed text, which is a little less personal, which Jesus might have been and Matthew might have written. Therefore, the printed text seems retainable here. Next, for the euvqu.j de., rather reliable editors have kai euqewj or euqewj de, an adverbial form to replace the noun form, while more keep the text as received, as seems prudent to do. Finally, for this verse, some editions have apostellei for avpostelei, a present for a future tense, while more reliables retain the text as printed, advisably so.

4 Some witnesses add to the words de. ge,gonen, the word onon to add what appears to be an emphasis to the significance of the event. However, it seems unnecessary to add a word here. Also, more reliable editors keep the text as printed. Besides, the event seems emphatic enough as it reads in the printed text, and since the addition would make it a longer verse, still unnecessarily though. And, between the two words, r`hqe.n and dia., some redactors add an upo, which, granted, does give more of a sense of the agency of the prophecy about to be cited but the addition makes the verse longer, so, probably it is not original. Metzger (TCGNT) notes that "Several witnesses . . . add Zacari,ou before or after u,prfh,tou; other witnesses . . . prefix 'Isaiah'." Those possibilities seem likely, so, they might have been original, or, at least quite early additions, if not actually Matthian.

5 Several editors omit some words in this Zechariah quote, however, even though it would be shorter without these two words, evpi. and ui`o.n, since the quote is more verbatim than Matthew usually is, it seems to be more likely original to preserve them.

9 Several significant manuscripts omit auvto.n, which seems it could be original either with or without it. So many witnesses delete it, it must be more worth considering than is obvious this early in the study of this text. Next, a few witnesses add at the end of this verse as in Luke 19:37 and John 12:13, kai exhlqon eij upanthsin autw molloi cairontej kai doxazontes ton qeon peri pantwn wn eidon, a description of all the people praising the God who is declared as coming. Such an addition might have appeared in some of the accounts, but probably not in any of the earliest ones.

C. Rough Translation

(JFC) 1 And when they came (aorist, active, indicative) near/to Jerusalem and they came to/near Bethphage to/near the Mount of the Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples 2 saying to them, "Go to the village the one opposite/before you, and immediately you will find (future, active, indicative) a donkey having been bound (aorist, perfect, participle) and a colt with her; untie/loose/release (imperatival sense of an aorist, active, imperative) bring (present, active, imperative) to me. 3 And if anyone to you should say (aorist, active, subjunctive) anything, say (future, active, indicative OR aorist, active, imperative) that the Lord for them need has; but immediately He will return them. 4 But this was happening (perfect, active, indicative) so that should be fulfilled (aorist, passive, subjunctive) that which was being said (aorist, passive, participle) by the prophet saying (present, active, participle), 5 Say (aorist, active, imperative) to the daughter of Zion;
behold the King of yours is coming to you humble and embarked on a donkey and on a colt (the) son of (the) donkey.
6 But went (aorist, passive, participle) the disciples and did (aorist, active, participle) as directed/instructed/ordered (aorist, active, indicative) them the Jesus 7 they brought the donkey and the colt and they put/placed on them the garments/cloaks, and He sat on them. 8 But the very large/great crowd spread (aorist, active, indicative) of theirs the garments on the road, but others were cutting (imperfect, active, indicative) branches from the trees and spreading (Imperfect, active, indicative) (them) on the road. 9 Bt the crowds the ones going (present, active, participle) before/ahead of Him and the ones following were shouting/calling out/crying out, "Hosanna to the Son of David;
God's blessings upon the One coming in name of Lord; Hosanna in the highest heaven."
10 And entering (aorist, active, participle) of Him into Jerusalem trembling/stirred p (aorist, passive, indicative) all the city saying, "Who is this?" 11 But the crowds were saying, "This is the prophet Jesus the One from Nazareth of Galilee." Matt 27:11-54
Lectionary Year A
March 24, 2002
Matthew 27:11-54

Initial Acquaintance/Rough Translation

(DH) ROUGH TRANSLATION - Matthew 27:1-54

(v.1) As it became morning, there a plan put together all the chief priests and the elders of the people against Jesus, with the result that he might be killed; (v.2) and after they tied him up, they led [him] away and delivered [him] over to Pilate, the governor.

(v.3) When Judas, the one who delivered him over [betrayed him], saw that he was being condemned, her returned, after having repented, the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and [the] elders, (v.4) saying: "I sinned in betraying innocent blood." But they said: "What [is it] to us? You shall see (fut.middle.indic.)." (v.5) And after throwing down the silver coins, he withdrew, and after going away he hanged himself.

(v.6) But the chief priests, after taking the silver coins, said: "It is not lawful to throw these things into the temple treasury, because money of blood it is." (v.7) But after holding council, they purchased from them [the silver coins] the field of the potter into [as] a burial place with respect to the strangers. (v.8) On account of this, that [particular] field was called 'field of blood' until this day. (v.9) Then the said-thing [the thing which had been spoken] by Jeremiah the prophet, was fulfilled, saying: "And they [I?] took the thirty silver coins, the money of the precious one [the having-been-honored-one], on whom a price had been set from [the] sons [children, people] of Israel (v.10) and they gave these things [coins] into [for] the field of the potter, just as commanded me the Lord."

(v.11) But Jesus stood before the ruler [governor]; and the ruler [governor] asked him, saying: "Are you, [yes] you, the king of the Jews?" But Jesus said: "You, [yes] you, are saying [this]." (v.12) And in the being accused of him by the chief priests and elders, nothing he answered. (v.13) Then Pilate is saying to him: "Are you not hearing how many things of [against] you they are testifying?" (v.14) And he did not answer to him, not even one word, which resulted in the wondering [being amazed] of the ruler [governor], a lot.

(v.15) But at each festival, with respect to custom, the governor [was] to set free one to the crowd, a prisoner whom they wanted. (v.16) Now then they had a notorious prisoner called [Jesus] Barrabas; (v.17) therefore, after they gathered together, Pilate said to them: "Whom do you wish I shall set free to you, [Jesus, the one called] Barrabas or Jesus, the one called the Anointed One [lit. the Christ]?" (v.18) For he had come to understand that on account of jealousy they delivered him over [betrayed him].

(v.19) Now while he was sitting [up]on the judicial bench, his wife sent [a message] to[ward] him, saying: "Nothing to you and to [with?] that righteous one [man]! For many things I suffered today in a dream on account of him."

(v.20) But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds so that they would demand [the release of] Barrabas, but Jesus they would destroyed [killed]. (v.21) But the ruler [governor] answered and said to them: "Whom do you wish from the two I shall set free to you?" But they said: "Barrabas!" (v.22) Pilate is saying [continues to say] to them: "Then, what shall I do with respect to Jesus, called the Anointed One [the Christ]?" All are saying: "Let him be crucified!" (v.23) But he said: "For what evil did he do?" But they screamed even louder, saying: "Let him be crucified!"

(v.24) But Pilate, having seen that nothing he is achieving, but rather [that] a riot is beginning, having taken/received water, he washed his hands before the crowd, saying: "Innocent I am from the blood of this one [man]; you all shall see!" (v.25) And/then the entire people answered and said: "His blood [be] upon us and upon our children." (v.26) Then he set free to them Barrabas, but Jesus, after beating [him] with a whip, he delivered over in order that he might be crucified.

(v.27) The soldiers of the ruler [governor], having taken Jesus alongside into the praetorium, gathered together upon him the whole cohort [remark: that could have been anywhere between 500 and 1,000 soldiers]. (v.28) And after stripping him, they put around him a scarlet robe, (v.29) and after twisting together a crown out of thorns, they put [it] upon his head and a reed [cane] in his right hand, and after kneeling down before him, they made fun of him, saying: "Hail [rejoice?], king of the Jews," (v.30) and after spitting into him, they took the reed [cane] and beat into his head. (v.31) And when they had made fun of him, they stripped him of the robe and put on him his [own] garments and they led him away in order to be crucified.

(v.32) Now after going out, they found a Cyrenian man by name of Simon, they forced him in order that he might carry his cross. (v.33) And after coming into [the] place called Golgotha, which is called Place of [the] Skull, they gave to him to drink wine, having been mixed with something bitter; and after tasting [it], he did not wish to drink. (v.35) But after crucifying him, they divided his garments while casting lots, (v.36) and sitting down, they observed [kept an eye on] him there. (v.37) And they put above his head his charge being written [in writing?]:
      "This one [man] is Jesus, the King of the Jews."

(v.38) Then they crucified with him two robbers [troublemakers?], one from [on] [the] right and one from [on] [the] left. (v.39) Now the ones who are passing by [alongside] were [continued to] blaspheming him while shaking their heads (v.40) and while saying: "The one who destroys the temple and in three days builds [it] up, save yourself, if you are [the] Son of God, and get yourself down from the cross. (v.41) Also in the same manner the chief priests, while making fun of [him] with the scribes and the elders, were [continued to] saying: "Others he saved, himself he is not able to save; King of Israel he is, let him now come down from the cross and we will believe upon him." (v.43) "He has had confidence upon God, now let him rescue [save] him if he wants to;" for he said: "I AM God's Son!" (v.44) But with respect to this [thing], even the robbers [troublemakers], the ones who were being crucified together with him, kept on insulting him.

(v.45) But from [the] sixth hour darkness came upon all the earth until [the] ninth hour. (v.46) Now around the ninth hour, Jesus cried up by means of a loud voice, saying: "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani!" this is: "My God, my God, for what reason did you abandon me?" (v.47) But some of those standing there, having heard [him crying up], were saying: "This man is calling [sounding out?] Elijah." (v.48) And immediately one of them, having run and having taken a sponge filled with respect to sour wine and having wrapped it around a cane, gave it to him to drink. (v.49) But the rest were saying: "Leave [him], let us see if Elijah is coming to save him! (v.50) But Jesus, again having cried out by means of a loud voice, left the spirit [died?].

(v.51) And suddenly the curtain of the temple was torn [divided] from above until below into two, and the earth trembled and the rocks were split apart, (v.52) and the [tombs] graves were opened and many bodies of the holy ones [saints?], the ones who had fallen asleep, were raised, (v.53) and having come out from the tombs [graves] after his resurrection, they entered into the holy city and were made manifest [appeared] to many.

(v.54) But the centurion and the ones standing watch with him with respect to Jesus, having seen the earthquake and the things that had happened, were terribly afraid, saying:"Truly, God's Son was this man!" [cf. v. 43!].

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