Lord William Rees-Mogg of The
London Times, a top spokesman for
British intelligence, has insisted in a
series of articles this year that, in
the coming Cyberspace Millenium, the
top 5 percent of super-rich elites with their
computers, will rule over the other
95 percent of human beings. To accomplish this, he states,
most of humanity must be dumbed-down to
the level of cows, by the deliberate
destruction of education.
To reverse this deliberate plan by
the economic royalists, it is now
necessary to form a political
movement, to take over music in
America. That is why the Schiller
Institute has begun a drive to form
children's and adult choirs in every
city in the U.S.A., to teach the old
Renaissance art of ``bel canto,'' or
beautiful song. The nearest image
Americans today might have of bel
canto, is that of an opera singer, who
can fill a 3,000-seat hall with song,
without a microphone.
According to Lyndon LaRouche's
book, A Manual on Tuning and
Registration (Figure 1), however, everyone
reading this, and all of his or her
children, should be able to sing better
than any star at the Metropolitan
Opera. The fact that this is not so,
proves that America has been robbed. [fn1]
For 400 years, from the 1430
beginnings of the Golden Florentine Renaissance to the
death of Beethoven in 1827, the
original high art of bel canto, was
taught to every child. The sculptures
in Figure 1 are the boy sopranos of the
Cathedral of Florence, where children
were trained to sing in choirs. These
sculptures were placed in the cathedral
as advertisements, to urge all the
parents in the city to bring in their
children for training. Any child, 100 percent
of all children, can be taught this.
A child who can sing this way has
the ability to think for himself. Such
a child will never be a slave. That is
not true of any kind of music, except
Classical music. This is why the
elites, the wealthy families of Europe,
have deliberately stopped the teaching
of Classical music.
The Language of Music
It is only Classical music which
can return us to a human society,
because only Classical music is
composed according to the creative
laws of the human mind. The ability to
create new ideas in the mind, is that
which God has given us, to distinguish
ourselves from the beasts.
Music is a form of language. But
to what does the language of music
refer? One can spend $100,000 at a
music college and be taught that the
language of music imitates chirping
birds, or dancing peasants who have had
too much to drink.
There is even a recent book called
The Joy of Classical Music, which
says folks should study Classical
music, because it will make them feel
better than pop music. It's the same
idea as two other familiar books, The
Joy of Cooking, and The Joy of Sex.
Music, however, is not food, or
sex--or anything which is done with
the senses. It comes from the human
mind, which is universal around the
world, and that is why anyone hearing
great music experiences it in a
universal way, in any nation.
In a 1992 article on Mozart's 1782
revolution in music, Lyndon LaRouche
wrote that the language of music refers
to human thought objects, coherent
new ideas created by the human mind. By
thought objects, we especially mean
ideas which solve problems, such as
the invention of the wheel, or of
electricity, ideas which make life
better for millions of human beings. We
don't mean thoughts which pop up in
reactions to the senses--such as: ``boy
meets girl ... and gets ideas.''
It is only Classical music which
shows us how some of the greatest
thinkers in history, men like Mozart or
Beethoven, created these kinds of
powerful thought objects. They created
their music to show us how they solved
these kinds of mental problems--to
teach us to think like them. [fn2]
Classical music is a science, and
you can master this science, and so can
your children. In his article, LaRouche
gives as an example of a thought
object, Cardinal Nicolas of Cusa's
Renaissance discovery of the principle
behind squaring the circle (Figure
The Greek Archimedes worked with a
series of polygons, inside the circle,
and outside, to calculate the area of a
circle. Polygons have straight lines as
sides; in Figure 2, left, are squares
around a circle; add more sides, and
they become octagons (right).
Most of us were told in school
that such a series of polygons becomes
the same as a circle. Isn't it a good
enough approximation? The answer is no,
and that means most people have been
lied to in school.
Cusa--to the contrary--discovered,
that no matter how many sides the
straight-line polygon has, it will
never be a circle. There will always be
a clear distinction between the
straight sides of the polygons, and the
curve of the circle.
In fact, the closer the polygons
seem to come to the circle, the more
corners or vertices they have--the less
like a circle they are! The polygons
based on the square, based on the
straight line, are simply a different
species from the circle, which is
based on the higher curves. [fn3]
By having the mental rigor to see
that the circle and curves which come
from it are a whole new, higher,
species, Cusa generated a new
mathematics to describe the higher
curves. He was the first to prove the
existence of new numbers, such as the
transcendental numbers, of which the
most famous is Pi. Many of the
benefits to modern science since the
Renaissance, depended on Cusa's having
the intellectual strength to discover
Now, one cannot describe in words,
what goes on inside the mind
there--like putting a label on a soup
can--except, LaRouche points out, by
metaphor. But unless we communicate
what goes on in there, to the next
generation, the idea dies! To
communicate this, to trigger the same
process to occur in others, for future
generations, one composes works of Art.
Laws of Natural Beauty
You also cannot fake a proof like
this. You must know what is a square,
and what is an octagon. You must master
the rules of the polygon series--before
you can create a higher geometry.
Musicians over the years have thus
first studied the laws of Natural
beauty, the laws of the biological and
physical universe which God made, as an
analogy to the polygons--before
composing music. LaRouche's music
manual emphasizes that God's first law
concerning music is that music is based
on the human singing voice.
The Renaissance sculptures show
that in Florence, children were taught
to sing at ages two to five, and kept
singing until the voice changed, seven
to ten years later. Thus, there was a large
population to whom singing, reading,
and writing music was a ``mother
tongue.'' This explains the frequency
in Europe between 1400-1850 of the
child ``genius'' composer. It proves
that genius can be taught.
After hundreds of years of
training children to sing, training not
just one or two star pupils but very
large numbers of children, whole towns
of children, musicians found that,
singing up or down the scale, the
average child has to make shifts--to
change in the way the notes are
physically produced, which we call a
register shift--at specific
Teachers found that the children
must shift from a lower register, the
first register, shown in grey, to a
higher register, the second register,
shown in white, and do so right in the
middle of the scale in Figure 3.
Over the years, it was found that
children, taught to think about what
they sang, and to make a new quality of
voice at this shift, developed
beautiful voices, and could sing all
their lives, into old age.
That is the why Middle C is Middle
C; it's not because it's in the middle
of the piano. Our scale is a series of
intervals, which goes up the familiar
octave: Do, re, mi, fa; so, la, si,
do. But it starts on a certain Middle
C, because only the octave of eight
notes which starts there, will find
itself divided in half, by the child's
register shift, between Fa and So, at
F#, or Fa#.
The register shift was put in the
average human voice by God, and the
scale conforms to that. Voices which
shift here are sopranos, including all
children (until their voices start to
change,) and many adult women.
As children mature, some girls
become mezzosopranos. But these are
lower voices, and they must shift a
step below the sopranos. So
mezzosopranos, also called altos, shift
at do-re-mi, on the note E.
At puberty, boys develop a lower
octave and grow up to become tenors,
baritones, and basses. But the intervals
of each voice are still divided up into
three or four qualities of the distinct
voice registers. In addition to the
first register, and the second
register, there are also higher
registers: the third register, and the
fourth register. Each has its own
different register shift point.
In fact, we have six species of
the adult singing voice--soprano,
mezzosoprano, contralto, tenor,
baritone, and bass--each containing
three, and some even four, different
register voices (Figure 4).
When a composer sets out
to construct a musical composition, he
has 6|x|3 or more colors, a
well-defined pallette of colors, from
which to paint. This begins to show
that composition is a science.
Classical music is composed by
people, like Mozart, Beethoven, and
Verdi, who were trained to sing as
children, to think about ideas in their
own voices, in this way. So they will
often shift to a new voice register, to
introduce new ideas into the music.
All music, composed for each of
these voices, is and has been, since at
least the Renaissance, constructed
around the specific register
voice-shift point for each voice.
For example, this aria
(Figure 5) from Handel's
Messiah, ``He Was
Despiséd,'' for mezzo, is constructed
entirely around the mezzosoprano's
register shift at E natural. The singer
uses her first register, in red, for
notes below the E, and then must shift
to her second register, in yellow, for
higher notes beginning with E. Thus,
the poetry is:
``HE WAS DEspised, despised and
Handel emphasizes: Not only was
Jesus despised, but he was even--what
is much worse--rejected. The human
voice shifts to a new register to
properly emphasize this poetic
irony--but only if music is performed
at the Classical pitch used from 1430
to Brahms's death in 1897: C|=|256
cycles per second.
Since 1890, however, the mafia
which controls our orchestras and
record companies has raised the pitch,
to C|=|263 cycles per second, that is,
A|=|440 -- and higher. This is just
enough to unfocus the voice, like
wearing the wrong glasses. At modern
high pitch, Handel's poetry is
distorted (Figure 6). The mezzo is forced to sing
certain notes which belong in the first
register, in the second register
instead. This creates incoherency in
``HE was despised, despised and
Leonardo and Music
In the Renaissance, Leonardo da
Vinci documented a second physical
field, another form of ``natural
beauty,'' which God put in the voice:
The vowels of human speech have their
own pitch (Figure 7). Leonardo compares three
vowels and puts /a/ highest, at the
nose; /o/ is lower, back in the mouth;
and /u/ lowest, in the throat.
Leonardo's drawing has been verified in
the modern laboratory. The vowel
changes come from the geometrical shape
of the vocal tract when speaking.
An Italian /i/ (``ee'' as in
``Aida''), the highest vowel, is
created in the smallest space. The /a/
(as in ``Aida'') is made by opening the
mouth more, and /u/ (as in ``too'') is
made by opening even more, and
extending the lips. This lengthens the
``pipe'' from lips to vocal cords, so
/u/ has the lowest vowel pitch.
You can feel the space inside your
mouth go from smaller, to larger by
saying: ``ee, ah, oo.''
Composers are very attuned to
this; Rossini for example set a song
for cats singing ``mee-ah-oo'' so that
the tune would go from high to low, to
follow the vowels. Man is higher than
the animals, but even with human
poetry, we still can't violate these
principles arbitrarily. In fact, every
poem is a musical score, based on the
vowels. ``Ave Maria'' for example rises
from the lower /a/ to the higher vowel
/i/, and falls again back to /a/. And
different composers, respect this, and
treat it similarly. Verdi and Schubert
for example both set it to a rising
melody to match the vowels.
The instruments, too, as LaRouche
outlined in his Mozart article, have
been developed since antiquity to
imitate the human voice, most
primitively the wind instruments. This
woodcut (Figure 8) from Michael Praetorius's 1619
Syntagma Musica shows a whole
chorus of old oboes, upper right. The
longest oboe at the far right,
Praetorius calls, in his text, the
bass oboe; he calls the next longer
one the tenor oboe, and then the
alto, and the soprano oboe, all named
after the human voice upon which they
were patterned. Each player went and
stood in that section of the choir,
bass oboe with the basses, tenor oboe
with the tenors, and played along with
that human voice.
In fact, one couldn't buy single
instruments. You had to buy the whole
choir to go with the human voices, at
least four or more oboes or flutes at
once. The winds had human voice
registers built in.
However, winds have a major
limitation: Once a pipe is cut a
certain length, it's fixed. Thus, wind
instrument registers are fixed, because
we change registers on winds by blowing
harder into this fixed pipe.
Classical strings, however, were
developed to provide a new technology,
used by Mozart in his revolution. A
violin has four strings, each made
differently; the lowest string, G, is
thickest, and the others thinner and
thinner. That gives the violinist four
different registers. But now, a
string player can imitate all types
of human voices, because he can move
from one string to another, by moving
his finger and bow, whenever he needs
to move, to match any human register
change. So, a violin can imitate a
soprano by shifting from the G string
to the D string at F#. Or, a violin can
imitate a bass, by shifting at the bass
Mozart developed a way to use the
principles of natural beauty much as
Cusa used the polygons. Cusa showed,
using the polygons, that there remains
the need to create a new concept for
the circle. So, the Classical composers
use the vowel intervals, the poetic
voices of the registers, and other
forms of God-given natural beauty.
But then, in the mind of the
composer, these many forms of natural
beauty are transformed, from many,
into a One, a single new conception.
We call this new concept artistic
beauty, for it is man-made.
That is, arraying these natural
intervals, vowels, registers, and so
on, in a particular way--the great
composers cause to leap into our minds,
the musical idea in their mind.
This new process is called
Motivfuehrung. It means, literally,
``leading by motif,'' a form of verbal
action. It's best understood by a
certain argument between the poet
Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), after
whom the Schiller Institute is named,
and his colleague Johann Wolfgang von
Now Goethe, who was a good poet
but an egotist, would not, to be blunt,
allow musicians to creatively develop
his poems. In fact, Goethe praised his
pet composer, Carl Friedrich Zelter
(1758-1832), specifically for his lack
of creativity, for the very fact that
he never created any new ideas when
composing the music! ``The origin of
his compositions, as far as I can
judge,'' Goethe wrote, ``is never an
inspiration, but rather a reproduction
of the poetic intentions ... music
should show off a poem, as an excellent
jacket, well fitted to the body.''
Schiller, however, was more
concerned about teaching people
creativity. He argued that, if a
composer set the words of a poem
literally, as in a children's jingle,
without change, that, is not music.
Rather, Schiller writes, the composer,
too, must create something new. A
song, he said, is a transformation of
the poem, above and beyond the words.
The composer, that is, must set the
``unheard sounds'' of the poem: ``Heard
melodies are sweet/ But those unheard,
are sweeter....'' [John Keats, ``Ode on
an Grecian Urn'' 1820]
A truly musical setting of a poem,
Schiller wrote, concentrates always
upon the unspoken transfinite concept
in the poet's mind, never upon his
specific words. ``The music may never
paint words and meddle with petty
trifles, but must only follow the
spirit of the poetry as a whole.''
Schiller wrote that a ``basic
emotion of music'' was in a sense a
cause of poetry itself, an emotion
which preceded his every poetic output.
Mozart, in 1785, when first
creating the Motivfuerhrung
method, created the first modern
Classical song, or Lied, from
this poem, ``Das Veilchen,'' ``The
Violet,'' by Goethe (Figure
9). Consider Goethe's poem as if
you were Mozart, and you wished to set
it to music. Please read the
translation of the poem so the meaning
Now, a Mozart wouldn't just
start ``from the top'' and compose line
by line. It is very important to
understand that the Motivfuehrung
method creates a single coherent
idea, one concept. When Cusa
discovered that he had to create
something higher than the straight-line
polygons, to discover the circular
curves, he thought of this as a
single new discovery.
So, Mozart scanned the poem as a
whole to discover the single
metaphor, the ``un-heard sound,''
which is the unspoken poetic idea,
conveyed by the entire poem. Since it's
un-heard, we won't say what it is. You
wouldn't explain the punchline after
telling a joke; but people ``get the
joke.'' Humor is a form of the
poetic principle--about the only form
we have left today.
A composer will begin hunting the
footprints of those sneaky ``unheard''
sounds, by looking for singular events,
odd spots. Looking at the whole poem:
What's the most unusual point? A violet
stood in the meadow. A shepherdess came
and sang. Very sweet, but nothing to
start a ``revolution in music.''
``It sank, and died,'' however, is
pretty dramatic. She might have just
broken a leaf.
On top of that: ``it rejoiced''?
That is singular. Not the usual
reaction to being crushed. He could
have written: ``It sank, and died--and
cried all night.'' But instead, it
rejoiced. And why? ``Because it died at
her pretty little feet.''
The moral of the story? Do you
know any fellows, who have problems
with the girls of this sort?
Does the Violet know this girl?
Does he care which girl it is? Or is he
``Standin' on the corner, watchin' all
the Shepherdesses go by''? Is he
thinking about her mind--or his own
ego? Isn't he just in love with love?
Is he in love with love ``above
the belt''--or love ``below the belt''?
You could say he's so far below the
belt, that he ends up below the foot.
Suppose Mozart knew that the world
famous leading Poet of the Universe,
Sir Herr Doctor Johann Wolfgang von
Goethe, had an ego problem, isn't this
delicious? He wanted to create
something new, above and beyond
what's in the poem. He wished to stand
above the poem, and make an ironic
comment on it.
Let's suppose Mozart began to
compose here: ``through her, at her
pretty little foot.'' (See Figure
10.) Then, what laws
does the poem give us? First, the laws
of the vowels, learnable and
scientific, as we saw. In German, the
words are: ``Durch sie, durch sie!''
That's a rising pitch in the vowels:
/u/|-|/i/, /u/|-|/i/. As in ``Ave
Ma-ri-a.'' So Mozart sets these
words, to a rising musical line.
Second: we must chose a definite
singing voice: soprano, tenor,
bass--appropriate to the mood of the
poem. It makes sense to choose a bass
voice for something like ``Deep
River.'' But would you have a bass sing
something light like this? Mozart set
it for soprano or tenor. And once he
did that, he had to next respect the
register laws, of that voice.
In fact, once a composer chooses a
poem to set, and then a species of
singing voice, he is already
constrained to head to certain key
signatures. Now we see how a composer
goes about chosing a key! He needs a
key which will let the natural
voice-register shift of the bel-canto
singer, change quality to the new
register, at a place where the
development of the poem, requires a new
The soprano and tenor shift
register on the F#. Thus, the key of G
is a clear candidate, because it rises
to a high G across a strong register
shift at F# for sopranos and tenors.
There are four beats in the line: ``Und
ich denn, so ich doch,
durch , durch .'' If Mozart
set this with the four tones:
Re|-|Mi|-Fa#|-|So, he gets a
register shift on ``Durch sie, durch
But the real irony, the decisive
shift in the whole song, occurs in the
previous passage, with the surprising
words ``it rejoiced''--``und freut'
sich noch'' (Figure 11).
Here Mozart has the piano bass
voice sing--as a soprano. Talk about
freedom of action and ironies; the
bass line arrives at the F#, by
playing the intervals: C, D, Eb, E, F#.
Here we really see the musical
revolution in instruments. Mozart,
beginning with this song in 1785,
changed the use of the piano
completely. In songs before this, the
piano just played along with the voice.
Now Mozart has made the piano into a
completely independent singing voice.
Then Mozart adds a piano solo,
something no one put in songs before
this one. Mozart's fortepiano was also
an advance over the old harpsichord. By
changing from light to heavy touch, a
fortepianist can mimic different
singing voices. The top voice, in the
right hand, is a soprano:
In the left hand are two other
voices, a bass (bass is circled), and a
tenor (Figure 12). Together
and it's a trio.
So this is Motivfuehrung; but
where's the motif?
Here is Mozart's opening theme,
and it turns out to be based on the
same space between ``Re'' and ``So''
which he chose for that line at the
end: ``And so I die, at her little
foot.'' At the end, Mozart rises from
``Re'' to ``So,'' that is, from the D
on ``Und sterb,'' to the high G on the
second ``durch sie.''
Here, at the very beginning,
Mozart plays with the same musical
space, but reverses it. Technically,
this is called an inversion. In the
first line, he rises instead from
``So'' to ``Re,'' by five intervals.
You can count the five intervals, also
called a ``fifth.''
Then, in the second line, he has a
counter-statement, or apposition, and
this one falls from ``So'' to ``Re.''
In the falling direction, it's another
inversion. It has four intervals--you
can count 4--called a fourth.
A fine opening motif. But, left to
itself, it could end up as a Madison
Ave jingle, as Schiller remarked.
That's where the Motivfuehrung,
``leading by motif,'' the developing,
comes in. What interests Mozart most
about this theme is: how fast he can
take it apart! And show you how to
generate a new one.
If we think of each new theme,
with its laws of voice registers, of
the vowels and so on, as similar to
Cardinal Cusa's polygons, then each
polygon can always be superceded by
another polygon, with more sides--but
none of these is a circle.
The creative composer delights in
presenting such a musical idea, only to
supercede it with a new musical idea,
the same way a scientist loves to
invent something new, by overturning
what everyone assumes is axiomatically
fixed in stone.
Here, Mozart states the first line
in the middle register. But then, he
has the second line--the
counter-statement--make a poetic
change, jumping up to a new higher
voice register, the third register, to
emphasize that not only is the violet
standing there, but: He's standing
there all alone and unknown.
To create a motion of change
similar to Cardinal Cusa's polygon
sequence, we need to hear a poetic
change emphasized on the second
phrase, which impels us in a certain
direction. Yet, the entire opening is
in just one key, the key of G.
Now Mozart escalates the changes.
Here comes the shepherdess, and Mozart
takes apart his first theme in G, and
creates a new key of D. If, in the
first line, we can move up a fifth from
G, ``So, la, si, do, re,'' Then, we can
from re, move up another fifth, five
notes from re to la (D to A):
Actually Mozart does this by
inversion again. He repeats the space
from the la below, to re. But the
effect of playing with the space
between re and la, between D and A, is
to make us now hear D, as the new key.
This is also helped, as musician
readers know, by adding a C#. This
changes the key, to D.
At the point where the shepherdess
sings, what does Mozart do? He has the
vocalist suddenly be completely
silent--and then, the piano sings.
He's changing Goethe's poem completely!
The piano sings up another fifth, to a
new key, A.
This quality of change escalates
throughout the song in a way which
shows these changes are one, single
idea of change. First, Mozart takes a
full verse to explore each new key.
Then, he overturns themes and
creates new keys so rapidly that, by
the end, new ideas, singularities, are
coming at an incredibly dense rate. By
``Es sank, und starb,'' each note in
the piano bass creates virtually a new
key. Rising through just a few notes,
it sings with the register shifts of
two human voices, first the mezzo shift
from E flat to E, and then the soprano
shift, from F to F#.
But the main idea to grasp now, is
that this passage is dissonant, and
unsettling enough, that you would be
very unhappy, if the song stopped here!
For example, how would you react,
if you heard a scale go only this far:
do re mi fa so la si--
You'd be rather upset, and you'd
want to hear the scale completed, by
adding that last missing note! The very
dense and dissonant passage in Figure
11 has the same unsettling effect.
So Mozart, in the passage which
follows, completes the idea, just as
you'd want the scale completed. Here,
that same unsettling F# from the bass,
now appears high up in the singer's
voice on the first ``Durch sie,'' and
then resolves up to the high G on the
last ``Durch sie.''
Remember: the high G on ``Durch
sie'' gives the main key of the whole
song. This resolution, has the effect
of confirming that these were very
important actions, all those unsettling
verbal actions, the sinking, dying, and
rejoicing, which took place before.
We hear the transformation
propagate and grow throughout the song,
just as an idea is at first
subsconcious, and then rises into
consciousness suddenly; or just as a
wave grows gradually, and then breaks.
Mozart has so completely
transformed Goethe's poem that he even
adds a line of text, something unheard
of, as his own comment at the end.
Goethe didn't write it, so it's not in
Figure 9, but Mozart adds at the end:
``The poor violet. It was a dear
A Manual on the
Rudiments of Tuning and
Registration, Volume I.
Washington, D.C.: Schiller Institute,
LaRouche, Lyndon H., Jr.,
``Mozart's Revolution in
Music,'' Fidelio, Winter 1992
LaRouche, Lyndon H., Jr., ``On
Metaphor,'' Fidelio, Spring
Figures and Displays
``For 400 years, from the 1430
beginnings of the Golden Renaissance in
Florence, to the death of Beethoven in
1827, the original high art of bel
canto, was taught to every child....
Any child, 100 percent of all children,
can be taught this.''
``Arraying these natural intervals,
vowels, registers, and so on, in a
particular way--the great composers
cause to leap into our minds, the
musical idea in their mind.''
``This new process is called
Motivfuehrung. It means, literally,
`leading by motif,' a form of verbal
``Schiller argued that, if a composer
set the words of a poem literally, as
in a childrens' jingle, without change,
that is not music.''
``Rather, Schiller wrote, the
composer, too, must create something
new. A song, he said, is a
transformation of the poem,
above and beyond the words.''
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A new Schiller Institute slide show in
full color, based on these ideas,
allows New Federalist readers
to present the urgent need to restart
fine music in America, to school boards
and other community groups. The set
includes over 30 color slides, a
script, and musical examples on an
audio tape. To order, send a check for
c/o S. E. Literature Sales
9625 Granby St.
Norfolk, VA 23503
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