Putting the standard under the lens
Determine the how and what
Look at the instructional strategies suitable to teach each
Look at the content, skills, processes to be taught, or
performances to be demonstrated
the Curriculum Framework
What are Essential
"moral of the (unit) story"
Full-sentence generalizations about
the resultant learning
Clearly stated and usually can be
"Big Picture" concepts
What are Essential
Questions at the heart of the
Usually can be argued
Often recur and should recur in
Can effectively provoke and sustain
engaged inquiry and focus final performance
Often raise important
conceptual or philosophical issues
Can provide purpose for
Types of Essential
"In nature, do
only the strong survive and what do we mean by ‘strong’?"
"How strong was President Bush
in his address to Congress after the terrorist attack of our country?"
Finally, What are the
Essential Knowledge & Skills?
The facts and just the facts
Support the understandings
The details that make clear the
"big picture" ideas
The process skills that students must
master to support the understandings
to measure the SOL?
Standards are not in measurable format
Need to unpack them further
Must establish from the SOL the
Goals of the standards
Objectives are Measurable Objectives
This format allows the teacher to focus on the what, the how,
the expectations, and the level of performance. The following must be determined:
an outline map of Virginia, the student will demonstrate
knowledge of the regions of Virginia by drawing and labeling at least four of
the five regions.
Behavior--draw and label
out of 5
The Condition raises or lowers the level of difficulty.
The level of support offered to students provides differentiation among
The learning is
the actual content to be mastered (the standard). This includes:
stem (often becomes a test question)
language (stated so that students can understand the requirements)
Performance level is the judgement of the instructor.
It can be stated in terms of number of questions correct, percentage
correct, score to be attained. The
instructor determines this and it should not always be the same figure.
Factors that impact this may include:
New material, review items, complexity, and other factors dealing
specifically with the content.
Behavior is indicated by the VERB. The level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that the student is required
to attain to demonstrate mastery of the SOL.
The verbs are observable, specific and measurable.
to performance objectives increases the chance the “right stuff” will be
remembered and the SOL target will be attained.
of Teaching Targets
Four types of targets
Specific details that teachers should focus upon
Only possible to hit the target if you know what it is
Unpacking allows the teacher to identify the target
Teaching of information
Basic steps for student to become proficient at a skill or
Writing a sentence
Analyzing the reasons for a particular result
Teaching a series of related skills
resulting in a particular outcome
or Performance Target
Teaching of skills and procedures for students to be able to
design a unique reproduction of performance that demonstrates learning of
Embedded in each SOL
Guiding practice to select most effective instructional method
Corresponds to the six levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy
Embedded in each SOL
Information or skills that are prerequisite learning that lead
to the SOL
Proficiencies student must have in order to attain the target
indicated by the SOL
Prior knowledge that must be taught
What is the ultimate target that must be taught to achieve a
Content, skill, process, product, or performance
How should the standard be taught to achieve the required
level of cognitive processing?
Determine the ultimate cognitive level (knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation) to which the
standard must be taught
Look at the VERB
Be familiar with verbs classified among the levels of Bloom
Determine the level of cognition that must be achieved
Unpacking will focus you so that the student target will be
Important to unpack all of the SOL
Some standards have several different parts
Don’t be deceived by short list per grade level
Standards are packed with knowledge, skills, products, and
performances required of students
Process should be quick and uncomplicated
If know verbs—process is simple
Translation into measurable targets
Quick read to determine the what (learning and condition) and
how (most suitable instructional method for reaching the cognitive
Your judgment determines performance level
Planning then becomes easier—know what is required
Provides the guide for instruction
Results in measurable goals and objectives
Teaching becomes more precise and efficient
Student performance on the SOL assessments will improve
Stiff, Helen Randolph. “Unpacking
the Standards.” Virginia
Journal of Education. June,
1999, p. 11-14.
Roland, Pam. “Goals
and Objectives.” PowerPoint,
Teaching for Standards Mastery. UVA: