Watchtower & Anti-Nicene 2


Clement of Alexandria, who died about 215 C.E., called Jesus in his prehuman existence “a creature” but called God “the uncreated and imperishable and only true God.”  He said that the Son “is next to the only omnipotent Father” but not equal to him.

Source Quotes:

“Wisdom…was the first of the creation of God.”  (The Stromata, Book 5, Chapter 14)

“The second word [i.e., commandment] intimated that men ought not to take and confer the august power of God (which is the name, for this alone were many even yet capable of learning), and transfer His title to things created and vain, which human artificers have made, among which `He that is' is not ranked.  For in His uncreated identity, `He that is' is absolutely alone.”  (The Stromata, Book 6, Chapter 16)

“So the best thing on earth is the most pious man; and the best thing in heaven, the nearer in place and purer, is an angel, the partaker of the eternal and blessed life.  But the nature of the Son, which is nearest to Him who is alone the Almighty One, is the most perfect, and most holy, and most potent, and most princely, and most kingly, and most beneficent.  This is the highest excellence, which orders all things in accordance with the Father's will, and holds the helm of the universe in the best way, with unwearied and tireless power, working all things in which it operates, keeping in view its hidden designs.  For from His own point of view the Son of God is never displaced; not being divided, not severed, not passing from place to place; being always everywhere, and being contained nowhere; complete mind, the complete paternal light; all eyes, seeing all things, hearing all things, knowing all things, by His power scrutinizing the powers.  To Him is placed in subjection all the host of angels and gods; He, the paternal Word, exhibiting a the holy administration for Him who put [all] in subjection to Him.”  (The Stromata, Book 7, Chapter 2)

Further Quotations from Clement of Alexandria:

“And the address in the Timœus calls the creator, Father, speaking thus:  `Ye gods of gods, of whom I am Father; and the Creator of your works.'  So that when he says, `Around the king of all, all things are, and because of Him are all things; and he [or that] is the cause of all good things; and around the second are the things second in order; and around the third, the third,' I understand nothing else than the Holy Trinity to be meant; for the third is the Holy Spirit, and the Son is the second, by whom all things were made according to the will of the Father.”  (The Stromata, Book 5, Chapter 14)

“For it was not without divine care that so great a work was accomplished in so brief a space by the Lord, who, though despised as to appearance, was in reality adored, the expiator of sin, the Saviour, the clement, the Divine Word, He that is truly most manifest Deity, He that is made equal to the Lord of the universe; because He was His Son, and the Word was in God, not disbelieved in by all when He was first preached, nor altogether unknown when, assuming the character of man, and fashioning Himself in flesh, He enacted the drama of human salvation:  for He was a true champion and a fellow-champion with the creature.”  (Exhortation to the Heathen, Chapter 10)

“If it is thy wish, be thou also initiated; and thou shall join the choir along with angels around the unbegotten and indestructible and the only true God, the Word of God, raising the hymn with us.  This Jesus, who is eternal, the one great High Priest of the one God, and of His Father, prays for and exhorts men:  `Hear, ye myriad tribes, rather whoever among men are endowed with reason, both barbarians and Greeks.  I call on the whole race of men, whose Creator I am, by the will of the Father.  Come to Me, that you may be put in your due rank under the one God and the one Word of God….'”  (Exhortation to the Heathen, Chapter 12)

“…our Instructor is like His Father God, whose son He is, sinless, blameless, and with a soul devoid of passion; God in the form of man, stainless, the minister of His Father's will, the Word who is God, who is in the Father, who is at the Father's right hand, and with the form of God is God.”  (The Instructor, Book 1, Chapter 2)

“The Lord ministers all good and all help, both as man and as God:  as God, forgiving our sins; and as man, training us not to sin.”  (The Instructor, Book 1, Chapter 3)

“For since Scripture calls the infant children lambs, it has also called Him - God the Word -  who became man for our sakes, and who wished in all points to be made like to us - `the Lamb of God' - Him, namely, that is the Son of God, the child of the Father.”  (The Instructor, Book 1, Chapter 5)

“…our Instructor is the holy God Jesus, the Word, who is the guide of all humanity.  The loving God Himself is our Instructor….Again, when He speaks in His own person, He confesses Himself to be the Instructor:  `I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt.'  Who, then, has the power of leading in and out?  Is it not the Instructor?  This was He who appeared to Abraham, and said to him, `I am thy God, be accepted before Me;'…This was the man who led, and brought, and wrestled with, and anointed the athlete Jacob against evil.  Now that the Word was at once Jacob's trainer and the Instructor of humanity [appears from this] - `He asked,' it is said, `His name, and said to him, Tell me what is Thy name.'  And he said, `Why is it that thou askest My name?'  For He reserved the new name for the new people - the babe; and was as yet unnamed, the Lord God not having yet become man.  Yet Jacob called the name of the place, `Face of God.'  `For I have seen,' he says, `God face to face; and my life is preserved.'  The face of God is the Word by whom God is manifested and made known.  Then also was he named Israel, because he saw God the Lord.  It was God, the Word, the Instructor, who said to him again afterwards, `Fear not to go down into Egypt.'”  (The Instructor, Book 1, Chapter 7)

“Nothing, then, is hated by God, nor yet by the Word.  For both are one - that is, God.  For He has said, `In the beginning the Word was in God, and the Word was God.'”  (The Instructor, Book 1, Chapter 8)

“…it is clear, that one alone, true, good, just, in the image and likeness of the Father, His Son Jesus, the Word of God, is our Instructor; to whom God hath entrusted us, as an affectionate father commits his children to a worthy tutor, expressly charging us, `This is my beloved Son: hear Him.'  The divine Instructor is trustworthy, adorned as He is with three of the fairest ornament-knowledge, benevolence, and authority of utterance:  with knowledge, for He is the paternal wisdom:  `All Wisdom is from the Lord, and with Him for evermore;' with authority of utterance, for He is God and Creator:  `For all things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made;' and with benevolence, for He alone gave Himself a sacrifice for us….”  (The Instructor, Book 1, Chapter 11)

“Be gracious, O Instructor, to us Thy children, Father, Charioteer of Israel, Son and Father, both in One, O Lord….And do Thou Thyself cause that all of us who have our conversation in Thy peace…may praise, and praising thank the Alone Father and Son, Son and Father, the Son, Instructor and Teacher, with the Holy Spirit, all in One….”  (The Instructor, Book 3, Closing Prayer)

“O King, great Giver of good gifts to men, Lord of the good, Father, of all the Maker, Who heaven and heaven's adornment, by Thy word Divine fitly disposed, alone didst make….Thee and Thy co-eternal Word, All-wise, From Thee proceeding, ever may I praise….”  (The Instructor, Book 3, Closing Prayer)

“1 John 1:1. `That which was from the beginning; which we have seen with our eyes; which we have heard.'….What therefore he says, `from the beginning,' the Presbyter explained to this effect, that the beginning of generation is not separated from the beginning of the Creator.  For when he says, `That which was from the beginning,' he touches upon the generation without beginning of the Son, who is co-existent with the Father.  There was; then, a Word importing an unbeginning eternity; as also the Word itself, that is, the Son of God, who being, by equality of substance, one with the Father, is eternal and uncreated….`And we show unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto you.'  He signifies by the appellation of Father, that the Son also existed always, without beginning.”  (Fragment, Comments on the First Epistle of John)

“Matthew 13:46.  A pearl, and that pellucid and of purest ray, is Jesus, whom of the lightning flash of Divinity the Virgin bore.  For as the pearl, produced in flesh and the oyster-shell and moisture, appears to be a body moist and transparent, full of light and spirit; so also God the Word, incarnate, is intellectual light, sending His rays, through a body luminous and moist.”  (Fragment from Nicetas' Catena on Matthew)

“Luke 3:22.  God here assumed the `likeness' not of a man, but `of a dove,' because He wished, by a new apparition of the Spirit in the likeness of a dove, to declare His simplicity and majesty.”  (Fragment from the Catena on Luke, Edited by Corderius; also Fragment from Macarius Chrysocephalus: Oration VIII On Matt. viii, and Book VII On Luke xiii)

“This visible appearance cheats death and the devil; for the wealth within, the beauty, is unseen by them.  And they rave about the carcase, which they despise as weak, being blind to the wealth within; knowing not what a `treasure in an earthen vessel' we bear, protected as it is by the power of God the Father, and the blood of God the Son, and the dew of the Holy Spirit.”  (On the Salvation of the Rich Man, Section 34)


Tertullian, who died about 230 C.E., taught the supremacy of God.  He observed:  “The Father is different from the Son (another), as he is greater; as he who begets is different from him who is begotten; he who sends, different from him who is sent.”  He also said:  “There was a time when the Son was not….Before all things, God was alone.”  (The word “tri'as” appears in its Latin form of “trinitas” in Tertullian.  While these words do translate to “Trinity,” this is no proof in itself that Tertullian taught the doctrine of the Trinity.)

Source Quotes:

“Everything which proceeds from something else must needs be second to that from which it proceeds, without being on that account separated:  Where, however, there is a second, there must be two; and where there is a third, there must be three.  Now the Spirit indeed is third from God and the Son….Nothing, however, is alien from that original source whence it derives its own properties.  In like manner the Trinity, flowing down from the Father through intertwined and connected steps, does not at all disturb the Monarchy, whilst it at the same time guards the state of the Economy.  Bear always in mind that this is the rule of faith which I profess; by it I testify that the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit are inseparable from each other, and so will you know in what sense this is said.  Now, observe, my assertion is that the Father is one, and the Son one, and the Spirit one, and that They are distinct from Each Other.  This statement is taken in a wrong sense by every uneducated as well as every perversely disposed person, as if it predicated a diversity, in such a sense as to imply a separation among the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit.  I am, moreover, obliged to say, when (extolling the Monarchy at the expense of the Economy) they contend for the identity of the Father and Son and Spirit, that it is not by way of diversity that the Son differs from the Father, but by distribution:  it is not by division that He is different, but by distinction; because the Father is not the same as the Son, since they differ one from the other in the mode of their being….Thus the Father is distinct from the Son, being greater than the Son, inasmuch as He who begets is one, and He who is begotten is another; He, too, who sends is one, and He who is sent is another; and He, again, who makes is one, and He through whom the thing is made is another.  Happily the Lord Himself employs this expression of the person of the Paraclete, so as to signify not a division or severance, but a disposition (of mutual relations in the Godhead); for He says, “I will pray the Father, and He shall send you another Comforter...even the Spirit of truth,” thus making the Paraclete distinct from Himself, even as we say that the Son is also distinct from the Father; so that He showed a third degree in the Paraclete, as we believe the second degree is in the Son, by reason of the order observed in the Economy.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapters 8-9)

“I maintain that the substance existed always with its own name, which is God…. but He has not always been Father and Judge, merely on the ground of His having always been God.  For He could not have been the Father previous to the Son, nor a Judge previous to sin.  There was, however, a time when neither sin existed with Him, nor the Son; the former of which was to constitute the Lord a Judge, and the latter a Father.”  (Against Hermogenes, Chapter 3)

“For before all things God was alone - being in Himself and for Himself universe, and space, and all things.  Moreover, He was alone, because there was nothing external to Him but Himself.  Yet even not then was He alone; for He had with Him that which He possessed in Himself, that is to say, His own Reason.  For God is rational, and Reason was first in Him; and so all things were from Himself.  This Reason is His own Thought (or Consciousness) which the Greeks call `logos’, by which term we also designate Word or Discourse and therefore it is now usual with our people, owing to the mere simple interpretation of the term, to say that the Word was in the beginning with God; although it would be more suitable to regard Reason as the more ancient; because God had not Word from the beginning, but He had Reason even before the beginning; because also Word itself consists of Reason, which it thus proves to have been the prior existence as being its own substance.  Not that this distinction is of any practical moment.  For although God had not yet sent out His Word, He still had Him within Himself, both in company with and included within His very Reason, as He silently planned and arranged within Himself everything which He was afterwards about to utter through His Word.  Now, whilst He was thus planning and arranging with His own Reason, He was actually causing that to become Word which He was dealing with in the way of Word or Discourse.  And that you may the more readily understand this, consider first of all, from your own self, who are made `in the image and likeness of God,' for what purpose it is that you also possess reason in yourself, who are a rational creature….Observe, then, that when you are silently conversing with yourself, this very process is carried on within you by your reason, which meets you with a word at every movement of your thought, at every impulse of your conception.  Whatever you think, there is a word; whatever you conceive, there is reason.  You must needs speak it in your mind; and while you are speaking, you admit speech as an interlocutor with you, involved in which there is this very reason, whereby, while in thought you are holding converse with your word, you are (by reciprocal action) producing thought by means of that converse with your word.  Thus, in a certain sense, the word is a second person within you, through which in thinking you utter speech, and through which also, (by reciprocity of process, ) in uttering speech you generate thought.  The word is itself a different thing from yourself.  Now how much more fully is all this transacted in God, whose image and likeness even you are regarded as being, inasmuch as He has reason within Himself even while He is silent, and involved in that Reason His Word!  I may therefore without rashness first lay this down (as a fixed principle) that even then before the creation of the universe God was not alone, since He had within Himself both Reason, and, inherent in Reason, His Word, which He made second to Himself by agitating it within Himself.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 5)

Further Quotations from Tertullian:

“We…believe that there is one only God, but under the following dispensation…that this one only God has also a Son, His Word, who proceeded from Himself, by whom all things were made, and without whom nothing was made.  Him we believe to have been sent by the Father into the Virgin, and to have been born of her - being both Man and God, the Son of Man and the Son of God, and to have been called by the name of Jesus Christ; we believe Him to have suffered, died, and been buried, according to the Scriptures, and, after He had been raised again by the Father and taken back to heaven, to be sitting at the right hand of the Father, and that He will come to judge the quick and the dead; who sent also from heaven from the Father, according to His own promise, the Holy Ghost, the Paraclete, the sanctifier of the faith of those who believe in the Father, and in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 2)

“…All are of One, by unity (that is) of substance; while the mystery of the dispensation is still guarded, which distributes the Unity into a Trinity, placing in their order the three Persons - the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost:  three, however, not in condition, but in degree; not in substance, but in form; not in power, but in aspect; yet of one substance, and of one condition, and of one power, inasmuch as He is one God, from whom these degrees and forms and aspects are reckoned, under the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 2)

“The Son…acknowledges the Father, speaking in His own person, under the name of Wisdom:  `The Lord formed Me as the beginning of His ways, with a view to His own works; before all the hills did He beget Me.'  For if indeed Wisdom in this passage seems to say that She was created by the Lord with a view to His works, and to accomplish His ways, yet proof is given in another Scripture that `all things were made by the Word, and without Him was there nothing made;' as, again, in another place (it is said), `By His word were the heavens established, and all the powers thereof by His Spirit' - that is to say, by the Spirit (or Divine Nature) which was in the Word:  thus is it evident that it is one and the same power which is in one place described under the name of Wisdom, and in another passage under the appellation of the Word, which was initiated for the works of God which `strengthened the heavens;' `by which all things were made,' `and without which nothing was made.'  Nor need we dwell any longer on this point, as if it were not the very Word Himself, who is spoken of under the name both of Wisdom and of Reason, and of the entire Divine Soul and Spirit.  He became also the Son of God, and was begotten when He proceeded forth from Him.” (Against Praxeus, Chapter 7)

“[The] Word of God, then…is called the Son, who Himself is designated God[.]  `The Word was with God, and the Word was God.'  It is written, `Thou shalt not take God's name in vain.'  This for certain is He `who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God.'”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 7)

“The Word, therefore, is both always in the Father, as He says, `I am in the Father;' and is always with God, according to what is written, `And the Word was with God;' and never separate from the Father, or other than the Father, since `I and the Father are one.'”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 8)

“…the Father and the Son are demonstrated to be distinct; I say distinct, but not separate….”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 11)

“…all the Scriptures attest the clear existence of, and distinction in (the Persons of) the Trinity, and indeed furnish us with our Rule of faith….”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 11)

“…the Word of God [is he] `through whom all things were made, and without whom nothing was made.'  Now if He too is God, according to John, (who says) `The Word was God,' then you have two Beings - One that commands that the thing be made, and the Other that executes the order and creates.  In what sense, however, you ought to understand Him to be another, I have already explained:  on the ground of Personality, not of Substance - in the way of distinction, not of division….I must everywhere hold one only substance in three coherent and inseparable (Persons)….”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 12)

“…listen to the psalm in which Two are described as God:  `Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; the sceptre of Thy kingdom is a sceptre of righteousness.  Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity:  therefore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee or made Thee His Christ.'  Now, since He here speaks to God, and affirms that God is anointed by God, He must have affirmed that Two are God, by reason of the sceptre's royal power.  Accordingly, Isaiah also says to the Person of Christ:  `The Sabµans, men of stature, shall pass over to Thee; and they shall follow after Thee, bound in fetters; and they shall worship Thee, because God is in Thee: for Thou art our God, yet we knew it not; Thou art the God of Israel.'  For here too, by saying, `God is in Thee', and `Thou art God,' he sets forth Two who were God:  (in the former expression in Thee, he means) in Christ, and (in the other he means) the Holy Ghost.  That is a still grander statement which you will find expressly made in the Gospel:  `In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.'  There was One `who was,' and there was another `with whom' He was.  But I find in Scripture the name Lord also applied to them Both:  `The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on my right hand.' And Isaiah says this:  `Lord, who hath believed our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?'  Now he would most certainly have said Thine Arm, if he had not wished us to understand that the Father is Lord, and the Son also is Lord.  A much more ancient testimony we have also in Genesis:  `Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven.'  Now, either deny that this is Scripture; or else (let me ask) what sort of man you are, that you do not think words ought to be taken and understood in the sense in which they are written, especially when they are not expressed in allegories and parables, but in determinate and simple declarations?”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 13)

“…we, who by the grace of God possess an insight into both the times and the occasions of the Sacred Writings, especially we who are followers of the Paraclete, not of human teachers, do indeed definitively declare that Two Beings are God, the Father and the Son, and, with the addition of the Holy Spirit, even Three, according to the principle of the divine economy, which introduces number….”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 13)

“That there are, however, two Gods or two Lords, is a statement which at no time proceeds out of our mouth:  not as if it were untrue that the Father is God, and the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God, and each is God; but because in earlier times Two were actually spoken of as God, and two as Lord, that when Christ should come He might be both acknowledged as God and designated as Lord, being the Son of Him who is both God and Lord.  Now, if there were found in the Scriptures but one Personality of Him who is God and Lord, Christ would justly enough be inadmissible to the title of God and Lord:  for (in the Scriptures) there was declared to be none other than One God and One Lord, and it must have followed that the Father should Himself seem to have come down (to earth), inasmuch as only One God and One Lord was ever read of (in the Scriptures)….As soon, however, as Christ came, and was recognised by us as the very Being who had from the beginning caused plurality (in the Divine Economy), being the second from the Father, and with the Spirit the third, and Himself declaring and manifesting the Father more fully (than He had ever been before), the title of Him who is God and Lord was at once restored to the Unity (of the Divine Nature)….”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 13)

“…the title of God and Lord is suitable both to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost….”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 13)

“I will therefore not speak of gods at all, nor of lords, but I shall follow the apostle; so that if the Father and the Son, are alike to be invoked, I shall call the Father `God,' and invoke Jesus Christ as `Lord.'  But when Christ alone (is mentioned), I shall be able to call Him “God,” as the same apostle says:  `Of whom is Christ, who is over all, God blessed for ever.'”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 13)

“I shall reckon [that] two things and two forms of one undivided substance [are] God and His Word, as the Father and the Son.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 13)

“…although the Word was God, yet was He with God, because He is God of God; and being joined to the Father, is with the Father.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 15)

“[Paul] expressly called Christ God, saying:  `Of whom are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever.'”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 15)

“And as for the Father's names, God Almighty, the Most High, the Lord of hosts, the King of Israel, the `One that is,' we say (for so much do the Scriptures teach us) that they belonged suitably to the Son also, and that the Son came under these designations, and has always acted in them, and has thus manifested them in Himself to men.  `All things,' says He, `which the Father hath are mine.'  Then why not His names also?  When, therefore, you read of Almighty God, and the Most High, and the God of hosts, and the King of Israel, the `One that is,' consider whether the Son also be not indicated by these designations, who in His own right is God Almighty, in that He is the Word of Almighty God, and has received power over all; is the Most High, in that He is `exalted at the right hand of God,' as Peter declares in the Acts; is the Lord of hosts, because all things are by the Father made subject to Him; is the King of Israel because to Him has especially been committed the destiny of that nation; and is likewise `the One that is,' because there are many who are called Sons, but are not….even the Son of the Almighty is as much almighty as the Son of God is God.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 17)

“Now the Scripture is not in danger of requiring the aid of any one's argument, lest it should seem to be self-contradictory.  It has a method of its own, both when it sets forth one only God, and also when it shows that there are Two, Father and Son; and is consistent with itself….Therefore `there is one God,' the Father, `and without Him there is none else.'  And when He Himself makes this declaration, He denies not the Son, but says that there is no other God; and the Son is not different from the Father.  Indeed, if you only look carefully at the contexts which follow such statements as this, you will find that they nearly always have distinct reference to the makers of idols and the worshippers thereof, with a view to the multitude of false gods being expelled by the unity of the Godhead, which nevertheless has a Son; and inasmuch as this Son is undivided and inseparable from the Father, so is He to be reckoned as being in the Father, even when He is not named….He says, then, that there is no God besides Himself in respect of the idolatry both of the Gentiles as well as of Israel….When, therefore, He attested His own unity, the Father took care of the Son's interests, that Christ should not be supposed to have come from another God, but from Him who had already said, `I am God and there is none other beside me,' who shows us that He is the only God, but in company with His Son, with whom `He stretcheth out the heavens alone.'…By thus attaching the Son to Himself, He becomes His own interpreter in what sense He stretched out the heavens alone, meaning alone with His Son, even as He is one with His Son.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 18-19)

“…the unity of God, that unity of His is preserved intact; for He is one, and yet He has a Son, who is equally with Himself comprehended in the same Scriptures….we have shown above that Two are actually described in Scripture as God and Lord….they are not said to be two Gods and two Lords, but that they are two as Father and Son; and this not by severance of their substance, but from the dispensation wherein we declare the Son to be undivided and inseparable from the Father - distinct in degree, not in state.  And although, when named apart, He is called God, He does not thereby constitute two Gods, but one; and that from the very circumstance that He is entitled to be called God, from His union with the Father.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 19)

“And first of all there comes at once to hand the preamble of John to his Gospel, which shows us what He previously was who had to become flesh.  `In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.  He was in the beginning with God:  all things were made by Him, and without Him was nothing made.'  Now, since these words may not be taken otherwise than as they are written, there is without doubt shown to be One who was from the beginning, and also One with whom He always was:  one the Word of God, the other God although the Word is also God (but God regarded as the Son of God, not as the Father); One through whom were all things, Another by whom were all things.  But in what sense we call Him Another we have already often described.  In that we called Him Another, we must needs imply that He is not identical - not identical indeed, yet not as if separate; Other by dispensation, not by division.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 21)

“Then there is the Paraclete or Comforter, also….`He shall receive of mine,' says Christ, just as Christ Himself received of the Father's.  Thus the connection of the Father in the Son, and of the Son in the Paraclete, produces three coherent Persons, who are yet distinct One from Another.  These Three are one essence, not one Person, as it is said, `I and my Father are One,' in respect of unity of substance not singularity of number.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 25)

“[Jesus] commands them to baptize into the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, not into a unipersonal God.  And indeed it is not once only, but three times, that we are immersed into the Three Persons, at each several mention of Their names.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 26)

“The Word is God….the Word became flesh….the truth is, we find that He is expressly set forth as both God and Man; the very psalm which we have quoted intimating (of the flesh), that `God became Man in the midst of it, He therefore established it by the will of the Father' - certainly in all respects as the Son of God and the Son of Man, being God and Man, differing no doubt according to each substance in its own especial property, inasmuch as the Word is nothing else but God, and the flesh nothing else but Man.  Thus does the apostle also teach respecting His two substances, saying, `who was made of the seed of David;' in which words He will be Man and Son of Man.  `Who was declared to be the Son of God, according to the Spirit;' in which words He will be God, and the Word - the Son of God.  We see plainly the twofold state, which is not confounded, but conjoined in One Person - Jesus, God and Man.” (Against Praxeus, Chapter 27)

“`God is a Spirit,' [so] also…there is `the Spirit of God;' in the same manner as we find that as `the Word was God,' so also there is `the Word of God.'”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 27)

“[The Son] will come again on the clouds of heaven, just as He appeared when He ascended into heaven.  Meanwhile He has received from the Father the promised gift, and has shed it forth, even the Holy Spirit - the Third Name in the Godhead, and the Third Degree of the Divine Majesty; the Declarer of the One Monarchy of God, but at the same time the Interpreter of the Economy, to every one who hears and receives the words of the new prophecy; and `the Leader into all truth,' such as is in the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, according to the mystery of the doctrine of Christ.”  (Against Praxeus, Chapter 30)

“God was pleased to renew His covenant with man in such a way as that His Unity might be believed in, after a new manner, through the Son and the Spirit, in order that God might now be known openly, in His proper Names and Persons, who in ancient times was not plainly understood, though declared through the Son and the Spirit.” (Against Praxeus, Chapter 31)

“[Hermogenes] does not appear to acknowledge any other Christ as Lord, though he holds Him in a different way; but by this difference in his faith he really makes Him another being - nay, he takes from Him everything which is God, since he will not have it that He made all things of nothing.  For, turning away from Christians to the philosophers, from the Church to the Academy and the Porch, he learned there from the Stoics how to place Matter (on the same level) with the Lord, just as if it too had existed ever both unborn and unmade, having no beginning at all nor end, out of which, according to him, the Lord afterwards created all things.”  (Against Hermogenes, Chapter 1)

“…the very Wisdom of God….from its being inherent in the Lord was of Him and in Him….this same Wisdom is the Word of God….”  (Against Hermogenes, Chapter 18)
“…the Son is the Word, and `the Word is God,' and `I and my Father are one.'”  (Against Hermogenes, Chapter 18)

“We have already asserted that God made the world, and all which it contains, by His Word, and Reason, and Power….We have been taught that He proceeds forth from God, and in that procession He is generated; so that He is the Son of God, and is called God from unity of substance with God.  For God, too, is a Spirit.  Even when the ray is shot from the sun, it is still part of the parent mass; the sun will still be in the ray, because it is a ray of the sun-there is no division of substance, but merely an extension.  Thus Christ is Spirit of Spirit, and God of God, as light of light is kindled.  The material matrix remains entire and unimpaired, though you derive from it any number of shoots possessed of its qualities; so, too, that which has come forth out of God is at once God and the Son of God, and the two are one.  In this way also, as He is Spirit of Spirit and God of God, He is made a second in manner of existence - in position, not in nature; and He did not withdraw from the original source, but went forth.  This ray of God, then, as it was always foretold in ancient times, descending into a certain virgin, and made flesh in her womb, is in His birth God and man united.”  (Apology, Chapter 21)

“…you must needs allow that those who have not acknowledged the Father have failed likewise to acknowledge the Son through the identity of their natural substance….”  (Against Marcion, Book 3, Chapter 6)

“[Marcion's] Christ, therefore, in order to avoid all such deceits and fallacies, and the imputation, if possible, of belonging to the Creator, was not what he appeared to be, and reigned himself to be what he was not - incarnate without being flesh, human without being man, and likewise a divine Christ without being God!”  (Against Marcion, Book 3, Chapter 8)

“And surely I might venture to claim the Very Word also as of the Creator's substance.”  (Against Marcion, Book 4, Chapter 9)

“…the Jews, who looked at Him as merely man, and were not yet sure that He was God also, as being likewise the Son of God, rightly enough said that a man could not forgive sins, but God alone…. He who remitted sins was God and man….”  (Against Marcion, Book 4, Chapter 10)

“There come to Him from Tyre, and from other districts even, a transmarine multitude.  This fact the psalm had in view:  `And behold tribes of foreign people, and Tyre, and the people of the Ethiopians; they were there.  Sion is my mother, shall a man say; and in her was born a man' (forasmuch as the God-man was born), and He built her by the Father's will; that you may know how Gentiles then flocked to Him, because He was born the God-man who was to build the church according to the Father's will - even of other races also.”  (Against Marcion, Book 4, Chapter 13)

“Now, what is that `foolishness of God which is wiser than men,' but the cross and death of Christ?  What is that `weakness of God which is stronger than men,' but the nativity and incarnation of God?  (Against Marcion, Book 5, Chapter 5)

“Of course the Marcionites suppose that they have the apostle on their side in the following passage in the matter of Christ's substance - that in Him there was nothing but a phantom of flesh.  For he says of Christ, that, `being in the form of God, He thought it not robbery to be equal with God; but emptied Himself, and took upon Him the form of a servant,' not the reality, `and was made in the likeness of man,' not a man, `and was found in fashion as a man,' not in his substance, that is to say, his flesh; just as if to a substance there did not accrue both form and likeness and fashion.  It is well for us that in another passage (the apostle) calls Christ `the image of the invisible God.'  For will it not follow with equal force from that passage, that Christ is not truly God, because the apostle places Him in the image of God, if, (as Marcion contends, ) He is not truly man because of His having taken on Him the form or image of a man?  For in both cases the true substance will have to be excluded, if image (or `fashion') and likeness and form shall be claimed for a phantom.  But since he is truly God, as the Son of the Father, in His fashion and image, He has been already by the force of this conclusion determined to be truly man, as the Son of man, `found in the fashion' and image `of a man.'  For when he propounded Him as thus `found' in the manner of a man, he in fact affirmed Him to be most certainly human.  For what is found, manifestly possesses existence.  Therefore, as He was found to be God by His mighty power, so was He found to be man by reason of His flesh, because the apostle could not have pronounced Him to have `become obedient unto death,' if He had not been constituted of a mortal substance.”  (Against Marcion, Book 5, Chapter 20)

“…we ask the reason why you have formed the opinion that Christ was not born.   Since you think that this lay within the competency of your own arbitrary choice, you must needs have supposed that being born was either impossible for God, or unbecoming to Him.  With God, however, nothing is impossible but what He does not will….You cannot express any apprehension that, if He had been born and truly clothed Himself with man's nature, He would have ceased to be God, losing what He was, while becoming what He was not.  For God is in no danger of losing His own state and condition.”  (On the Flesh of Christ, Chapter 2-3)

“You have sometimes read and believed that the Creator's angels have been changed into human form….Has it, then, been permitted to angels, which are inferior to God, after they have been changed into human bodily form, nevertheless to remain angels?  And will you deprive God, their superior, of this faculty, as if Christ could not continue to be God, after His real assumption of the nature of man?”  (On the Flesh of Christ, Chapter 3)

“There are, to be sure, other things also quite as foolish (as the birth of Christ), which have reference to the humiliations and sufferings of God….For which is more unworthy of God, which is more likely to raise a blush of shame, that God should be born, or that He should die?  That He should bear the flesh, or the cross?  Be circumcised, or be crucified?  Be cradled, or be coffined? Be laid in a manger, or in a tomb?…Have you, then, cut away all sufferings from Christ, on the ground that, as a mere phantom, He was incapable of experiencing them?…answer me at once, you that murder truth:  Was not God really crucified?  And, having been really crucified, did He not really die?  And, having indeed really died, did He not really rise again?…O thou most infamous of men, who acquittest of all guilt the murderers of God!”  (On the Flesh of Christ, Chapter 5)

“…Christ could not be described as being…Son of man without any human parent…nor the Son of God without having God for His father.  Thus the nature of the two substances displayed Him as man and God - in one respect born, in the other unborn….This property of the two states - the divine and the human - is distinctly asserted with equal truth of both natures alike….”  (On the Flesh of Christ, Chapter 5)

“Christ, then, was actuated by the motive which led Him to take human nature.  Man's salvation was the motive, the restoration of that which had perished.  Man had perished; his recovery had become necessary.  No such cause, however, existed for Christ's taking on Him the nature of angels.  For although there is assigned to angels also perdition in `the fire prepared for the devil and his angels,' yet a restoration is never promised to them.  No charge about the salvation of angels did Christ ever receive from the Father; and that which the Father neither promised nor commanded, Christ could not have undertaken….But was it His object indeed to deliver man by an angel?  Why, then, come down to do that which He was about to expedite with an angel's help?  If by an angel's aid, why come Himself also?  If He meant to do all by Himself, why have an angel too?  He has been, it is true, called `the Angel of great counsel,' that is, a messenger, by a term expressive of official function, not of nature.  For He had to announce to the world the mighty purpose of the Father, even that which ordained the restoration of man. But He is not on this account to be regarded as an angel, as a Gabriel or a Michael….He…is verily God, and the Son of God[.]”  (On the Flesh of Christ, Chapter 14)

“Neither, indeed, was ever used by Christ that familiar phrase of all the prophets, `Thus saith the Lord.'  For He was Himself the Lord, who openly spake by His own authority, prefacing His words with the formula, `Verily, verily, I say unto you.'  What need is there of further argument?  Hear what Isaiah says in emphatic words, `It was no angel, nor deputy, but the Lord Himself who saved them.'”  (On the Flesh of Christ, Paragraph 14)

“And God made man, that is to say, the creature which He moulded and fashioned; after the image of God (in other words, of Christ) did He make him.  And the Word was God also, who being in the image of God, `thought it not robbery to be equal to God.'”  (On the Resurrection of the Flesh, Chapter 6)

Jesus is still sitting there at the right hand of the Father, man, yet God - the last Adam, yet the primary Word - flesh and blood, yet purer than ours - who `shall descend in like manner as He ascended into heaven' the same both in substance and form, as the angels affirmed, so as even to be recognised by those who pierced Him.  Designated, as He is, `the Mediator between God and man,' He keeps in His own self the deposit of the flesh which has been committed to Him by both parties - the pledge and security of its entire perfection.  For as `He has given to us the earnest of the Spirit,' so has He received from us the earnest of the flesh, and has carried it with Him into heaven as a pledge of that complete entirety which is one day to be restored to it.”  (On the Resurrection of the Flesh, Chapter 51)

God suffers Himself to be conceived in a mother's womb….”  (On Patience, Chapter 3)

“…righteousness…was first in a rudimentary state, having a natural fear of God:  from that stage it advanced…now, through the Paraclete, it is settling into maturity.  He will be, after Christ, the only one to be called and revered as Master; for He speaks not from Himself, but what is commanded by Christ.  He is the only prelate, because He alone succeeds Christ.  They who have received Him set truth before custom.  They who have heard Him prophesying even to the present time, not of old, bid virgins be wholly covered.”  (On the Veiling of Virgins, Chapter 1)


Hippolytus, who died about 235 C.E., said that God is “the one God, the first and the only One, the Maker and Lord of all,” who “had nothing co-eval [of equal age] with him….But he was One, alone by himself; who, willing it, called into being what had no being before,” such as the created prehuman Jesus.

Source Quotes:

“The first and only (one God), both Creator and Lord of all, had nothing coeval with Himself; not infinite chaos, nor measureless water, nor solid earth, nor dense air, not warm fire, nor refined spirit, nor the azure canopy of the stupendous firmament.  But He was One, alone in Himself.  By an exercise of His will He created things that are, which antecedently had no existence, except that He willed to make them….Therefore this solitary and supreme Deity, by an exercise of reflection, brought forth the Logos first; not the word in the sense of being articulated by voice, but as a ratiocination of the universe, conceived and residing in the divine mind.  Him alone He produced from existing things; for the Father Himself constituted existence, and the being born from Him was the cause of all things that are produced.  The Logos was in the Father Himself, bearing the will of His progenitor, and not being unacquainted with the mind of the Father.  For simultaneously with His procession from His Progenitor, inasmuch as He is this Progenitor's first-born, He has, as a voice in Himself, the ideas conceived in the Father.  And so it was, that when the Father ordered the world to come into existence, the Logos one by one completed each object of creation, thus pleasing God….For as many things as He willed, God made from time to time.  These things He created through the Logos, it not being possible for things to be generated otherwise than as they were produced….The Logos alone of this God is from God himself; wherefore also the Logos is God, being the substance of God.  Now the world was made from nothing; wherefore it is not God; as also because this world admits of dissolution whenever the Creator so wishes it.”  (Refutation of All Heresies, Book 10, Chapters 28-29)

Further Quotations from Hippolytus:

“For the Son, being the power of God the Father, endued the temple of His own body again with life.  Thus is He said to have been saved by the Father, as He stood in peril as a man, though by nature He is God, and Himself maintains the whole creation, visible and invisible, in a state of wellbeing.”  (On Genesis, Gen 49:16-20)

For though He endured the cross, yet as God He returned to life, having trampled upon death, as His God and Father addresses Him, and says, `Sit Thou at my right hand.'”  (On Genesis, Gen 49:21-26)

“For as the only begotten Word of God, being God of God, emptied Himself, according to the Scriptures, humbling Himself of His own will to that which He was not before, and took unto Himself this vile flesh, and appeared in the `form of a servant,' and `became obedient to God the Father, even unto death,' so hereafter He is said to be `highly exalted;' and as if well-nigh He had it not by reason of His humanity, and as if it were in the way of grace, He `receives the name which is above every name,' according to the word of the blessed Paul.  But the matter, in truth, was not a `giving,' as for the first time, of what He had not by nature; far otherwise.  But rather we must understand a return and restoration to that which existed in Him at the beginning, essentially and inseparably.  And it is for this reason that, when He had assumed, by divine arrangement, the lowly estate of humanity, He said, `Father, glorify me with the glory which I had,' etc.  For He who was co-existent with His Father before all time, and before the foundation of the world, always had the glory proper to Godhead.”  (On Genesis, Gen 49:21-26)

“Now, in order that He might be shown to have together in Himself at once the nature of God and that of man - as the apostle, too, says:  `Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.  Now a mediator is not of one man, but two' - it was therefore necessary that Christ, in becoming the Mediator between God and men, should receive from both an earnest of some kind, that He might appear as the Mediator between two distinct persons.”  (On Numbers)

“`There be three things which go well, and the fourth which is comely in going;' that is, the angels in heaven, the saints upon earth, and the souls of the righteous under the earth.  And the fourth, viz. God, the Word Incarnate, passed in honour through the Virgin's womb; and creating our Adam anew, he passed through the gates of heaven, and became the first-fruits of the resurrection and of the ascension for all.”  (On Proverbs, Paragraph 25)

“Christ, he means, the wisdom and power of God the Father, hath builded His house, i.e., His nature in the flesh derived from the Virgin, even as he (John) hath said beforetime, `The Word became flesh, and dwelt among us.'  As likewise the wise prophet testifies:  Wisdom that was before the world, and is the source of life, the infinite `Wisdom of God, hath builded her house' by a mother who knew no man - to wit, as He assumed the temple of the body….And again, `She hath mingled her wine' in the bowl, by which is meant, that the Saviour, uniting his Godhead, like pure wine, with the flesh in the Virgin, was born of her at once God and man without confusion of the one in the other.  `And she hath furnished her table:'  that denotes the promised knowledge of the Holy Trinity….”  (On Proverbs 9:1)

“For as the children of Israel were destined to see God in the world, and yet not to believe on Him, the Scripture showed beforehand that the Gentiles would recognise Him incarnate, whom, while not incarnate, Nebuchadnezzar saw and recognised of old in the furnace, and acknowledged to be the Son of God.”  (Scholia on Daniel 3:92)

“For when the three beasts have finished their course, and been removed, and the one still stands in vigour - if this one, too, is removed, then finally earthly things (shall) end, and heavenly things begin; that the indissoluble and everlasting kingdom of the saints may be brought to view, and the heavenly King manifested to all, no longer in figure, like one seen in vision, or revealed in a pillar of cloud upon the top of a mountain, but amid the powers and armies of angels, as God incarnate and man, Son of God and Son of man - coming from heaven as the world's Judge.”  (Scholia on Daniel 7:17)

“For this reason the warders of Hades trembled when they saw Him; and the gates of brass and the bolts of iron were broken.  For, lo, the Only-begotten entered, a soul among souls, God the Word with a (human) soul.  For His body lay in the tomb, not emptied of divinity; but as, while in Hades, He was in essential being with His Father, so was He also in the body and in Hades.  For the Son is not contained in space, just as the Father; and He comprehends all things in Himself.  But of His own will he dwelt in a body animated by a soul, in order that with His soul He might enter Hades, and not with His pure divinity.” (On Luke, Chapter 23)

“…our Lord Jesus Christ, who is also God, was prophesied of under the figure of a lion, on account of His royalty and glory….”  (Treatise on Christ and Antichrist, Section 6)

“[John the Baptist], on hearing the salutation addressed to Elisabeth, leaped with joy in his mother's womb, recognising God the Word conceived in the womb of the Virgin.”  (Treatise on Christ and Antichrist, Section 45)

“…the Church will not cease to bear from her heart the Word that is persecuted by the unbelieving in the world.  `And she brought forth,' he says, `a man-child, who is to rule all the nations;' by which is meant that the Church, always bringing forth Christ, the perfect man-child of God, who is declared to be God and man, becomes the instructor of all the nations.”  (Treatise on Christ and Antichrist, Section 61)

“Now Christ prayed all this economically as man; being, however, true God.”  (Expository Treatise Against the Jews, Section 4)

“But why, O prophet, tell us, and for what reason, was the temple made desolate?  Was it on account of that ancient fabrication of the calf?  Was it on account of the idolatry of the people?  Was it for the blood of the prophets?  Was it for the adultery and fornication of Israel?  By no means, he says; for in all these transgressions they always found pardon open to them, and benignity; but it was because they killed the Son of their Benefactor, for He is co-eternal with the Father.”  (Expository Treatise against the Jews, Section 7)

“For all, the righteous and the unrighteous alike, shall be brought before God the Word.  For the Father hath committed all judgment to Him; and in fulfilment of the Father's counsel, He cometh as Judge whom we call Christ.”  (Against Plato, on the Cause of the Universe, Section 3)

“For the infinite cannot in any manner or by any account be susceptible of movement, inasmuch as it has nothing towards which and nothing around which it shall be moved.  For in the case of that which is in its nature infinite, and so incapable of being moved, movement would be conversion.  Wherefore also the Word of God being made truly man in our manner, yet without sin, and acting and enduring in man's way such sinless things as are proper to our nature, and assuming the circumscription of the flesh of our nature on our behalf sustained no conversion in that aspect in which He is one with the Father, being made in no respect one with the flesh through the exinanition.  When He was without flesh, He remained without any circumscription.  And through the flesh He wrought divinely those things which are proper to divinity, showing Himself to have both those natures in both of which He wrought, I mean the divine and the human, according to that veritable and real and natural subsistence, (showing Himself thus) as both being in reality and as being understood to be at one and the same time infinite God and finite man, having the nature of each in perfection, with the same activity, that is to say, the same natural properties; whence we know that their distinction abides always according to the nature of each, and without conversion….For the divine is just the same after the incarnation that it was before the incarnation; in its essence infinite, illimitable, impassible, incomparable, unchangeable, inconvertable, self-potent, and, in short, subsisting in essence alone the infinitely worthy good.  The God of all things therefore became truly, according to the Scriptures, without conversion, sinless man, and that in a manner known to Himself alone, as He is the natural Artificer of things which are above our comprehension.  And by that same saving act of the incarnation He introduced into the flesh the activity of His proper divinity, yet without having it (that activity) either circumscribed by the flesh through the exinanition, or growing naturally out of the flesh as it grew out of His divinity, but manifested through it in the things which He wrought in a divine manner in His incarnate state.  For the flesh did not become divinity in nature by a transmutation of nature, as though it became essentially flesh of divinity.  But what it was before, that also it continued to be in nature and activity when united with divinity, even as the Saviour said, `The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.'  And working and enduring in the flesh things which were proper to sinless flesh, He proved the evacuation of divinity (to be) for our sakes, confirmed as it was by wonders and by sufferings of the flesh naturally.  For with this purpose did the God of all things become man, viz., in order that by suffering in the flesh, which is susceptible of suffering, He might redeem our whole race, which was sold to death; and that by working wondrous things by His divinity, which is unsusceptible of suffering, through the medium of the flesh He might restore it to that incorruptible and blessed life from which it fell away by yielding to the devil; and that He might establish the holy orders of intelligent existences in the heavens in immutability by the mystery of His incarnation, the doing of which is the recapitulation of all things in himself.  He remained therefore, also, after His incarnation, according to nature, God infinite, and more, having the activity proper and suitable to Himself - an activity growing out of His divinity essentially, and manifested through His perfectly holy flesh by wondrous acts economically, to the intent that He might be believed in as God, while working out of Himself by the flesh, which by nature is weak, the salvation of the universe.”  (Against Beron and Helix, Fragments 1-2)

“Now, to institute a comparison with that which is utterly beyond comparison, just as in us the power of thought that belongs by nature to the soul is brought to utterance by means of our bodily tongue without any change in itself, so, too, in the wondrous incarnation of God is the omnipotent and all-creating energy of the entire deity manifested without mutation in itself, by means of His perfectly holy flesh, and in the works which He wrought after a divine manner, (that energy of the deity) remaining in its essence free from all circumscription, although it shone through the flesh, which is itself essentially limited.  For that which is in its nature unoriginated cannot be circumscribed by an originated nature….”  (Against Beron and Helix, Fragment 3)

“For, in the view of apostles and prophets and teachers, the mystery of the divine incarnation has been distinguished as having two points of contemplation natural to it, distinct in all things, inasmuch as on the one hand it is the subsistence of perfect deity, and on the other is demonstrative of full humanity.  As long, therefore, as the Word is acknowledged to be in substance one, of one energy, there shall never in any way be known a movement in the two.  For while God, who is essentially ever-existent, became by His infinite power, according to His will, sinless man, He is what He was, in all wherein God is known; and what He became, He is in all wherein man is known and can be recognised.  In both aspects of Himself He never falls out of Himself, in His divine activities and in His human alike, preserving in both relations His own essentially unchangeable perfection.”  (Against Baron and Helix, Fragment 4)

“…Christ, in so far as He is apprehended as God, gave existence to the universe, and now maintains and governs it.”  (Against Beron and Helix, Fragment 8)

“But the pious confession of the believer is that, with a view to our salvation, and in order to connect the universe with unchangeableness, the Creator of all things incorporated with Himself a rational soul and a sensible body from the all-holy Mary, ever-virgin, by an undefiled conception, without conversion, and was made man in nature, but separate from wickedness:  the same was perfect God, and the same was perfect man; the same was in nature at once perfect God and man.  In His deity He wrought divine things through His all-holy flesh - such things, namely, as did not pertain to the flesh by nature; and in His humanity He suffered human things - such things, namely, as did not pertain to deity by nature, by the upbearing of the deity.  He wrought nothing divine without the body; nor did the same do anything human without the participation of deity.  Thus He preserved for Himself a new and fitting method by which He wrought (according to the manner of) both, while that which was natural to both remained unchanged; to the accrediting of His perfect incarnation, which is really genuine, and has nothing lacking in it.”  (Against Beron and Helix, Fragment 8)

“For he who comes down in faith to the laver of regeneration, and renounces the devil, and joins himself to Christ; who denies the enemy, and makes the confession that Christ is God; who puts off the bondage, and puts on the  adoption - he comes up from the baptism brilliant as the sun, flashing forth the beams of righteousness, and, which is indeed the chief thing, he returns a son of God and joint-heir with Christ.”  (Discourse on the Holy Theophany, Section 10)

“In the Passover season, so as to exhibit Himself as one destined to be sacrificed like a sheep, and to prove Himself the true Paschal-lamb, even as the apostle says, `Even Christ,' who is God, `our passover was sacrificed for us.'”  (Homily on the Paschal Supper)

“For who will not say that there is one God?  Yet he will not on that account deny the economy (i.e., the number and disposition of persons in the Trinity).”  (Against the Heresy of One Noetus, Section 3)

“Let us look next at the apostle's word:  `Whose are the fathers, of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever.'  This word declares the mystery of the truth rightly and clearly.  He who is over all is God; for thus He speaks boldly, `All things are delivered unto me of my Father.'  He who is over all, God blessed, has been born; and having been made man, He is (yet) God for ever.  For to this effect John also has said, `Which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.'  And well has he named Christ the Almighty.”  (Against the Heresy of One Noetus, Section 6)

“A man, therefore, even though he will it not, is compelled to acknowledge God the Father Almighty, and Christ Jesus the Son of God, who, being God, became man, to whom also the Father made all things subject, Himself excepted, and the Holy Spirit; and that these, therefore, are three.  But if he desires to learn how it is shown still that there is one God, let him know that His power is one.  As far as regards the power, therefore, God is one.  But as far as regards the economy there is a threefold manifestation, as shall be proved afterwards when we give account of the true doctrine.  In these things, however, which are thus set forth by us, we are at one.  For there is one God in whom we must believe, but unoriginated, impassible, immortal, doing all things as He wills, in the way He wills, and when He wills.”  (Against the Heresy of One Noetus, Section 8)

God, subsisting alone, and having nothing contemporaneous with Himself, determined to create the world.  And conceiving the world in mind, and willing and uttering the word, He made it; and straightway it appeared, formed as it had pleased Him.  For us, then, it is sufficient simply to know that there was nothing contemporaneous with God.  Beside Him there was nothing; but He, while existing alone, yet existed in plurality.  For He was neither without reason, nor wisdom….For all things that are made He forms by reason and wisdom - creating them in reason, and arranging them in wisdom….And as the Author, and fellow-Counsellor, and Framer of the things that are in formation, He begat the Word; and…He bears this Word in Himself…begetting Him as Light of Light….And thus there appeared another beside Himself.  But when I say another, I do not mean that there are two Gods, but that it is only as light of light….Thus, then, was the Word made manifest, even as the blessed John says.  For he sums up the things that were said by the prophets, and shows that this is the Word, by whom all things were made.  For he speaks to this effect:  `In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.  All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made.'”  (Against the Heresy of One Noetus, Sections 10-12)

“And the blessed John, in the testimony of his Gospel, gives us an account of this economy (disposition) and acknowledges this Word as God, when he says, `In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.'  If, then, the Word was with God, and was also God, what follows?  Would one say that he speaks of two Gods?  I shall not indeed speak of two Gods, but of one; of two Persons however, and of a third economy (disposition), viz., the grace of the Holy Ghost.  For the Father indeed is One, but there are two Persons, because there is also the Son; and then there is the third, the Holy Spirit….The economy of harmony is led back to one God; for God is One.  It is the Father who commands, and the Son who obeys, and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding:  the Father who is above all, and the Son who is through all, and the Holy Spirit who is in all.  And we cannot otherwise think of one God, but by believing in truth in Father and Son and Holy Spirit….The Father's Word, therefore, knowing the economy (disposition) and the will of the Father, to wit, that the Father seeks to be worshipped in none other way than this, gave this charge to the disciples after He rose from the dead:  `Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.'  And by this He showed, that whosoever omitted any one of these, failed in glorifying God perfectly.  For it is through this Trinity that the Father is glorified.  For the Father willed, the Son did, the Spirit manifested.  The whole Scriptures, then, proclaim this truth.”  (Against the Heresy of One Noetus, Section 14)

“Let us believe then, dear brethren, according to the tradition of the apostles, that God the Word came down from heaven, (and entered) into the holy Virgin Mary, in order that, taking the flesh from her, and assuming also a human, by which I mean a rational soul, and becoming thus all that man is with the exception of sin, He might save fallen man, and confer immortality on men who believe on His name.  In all, therefore, the word of truth is demonstrated to us, to wit, that the Father is One, whose word is present (with Him), by whom He made all things; whom also, as we have said above, the Father sent forth in later times for the salvation of men.  This (Word) was preached by the law and the prophets as destined to come into the world.  And even as He was preached then, in the same manner also did He come and manifest Himself, being by the Virgin and the Holy Spirit made a new man; for in that He had the heavenly (nature) of the Father, as the Word and the earthly (nature), as taking to Himself the flesh from the old Adam by the medium of the Virgin, He now, coming forth into the world, was manifested as God in a body, coming forth too as a perfect man.  For it was not in mere appearance or by conversion, but in truth, that He became man.  Thus then, too, though demonstrated as God, He does not refuse the conditions proper to Him as man, since He hungers and toils and thirsts in weariness, and flees in fear, and prays in trouble.  And He who as God has a sleepless nature, slumbers on a pillow.  And He who for this end came into the world, begs off from the cup of suffering.  And in an agony He sweats blood, and is strengthened by an angel, who Himself strengthens those who believe on Him, and taught men to despise death by His work.  And He who knew what manner of man Judas was, is betrayed by Judas.  And He, who formerly was honoured by him as God, is condemned by Caiaphas.  And He is set at nought by Herod, who is Himself to judge the whole earth.  And He is scourged by Pilate, who took upon Himself our infirmities.  And by the soldiers He is mocked, at whose behest stand thousands of thousands and myriads of myriads of angels and archangels.  And He who fixed the heavens like a vault is fastened to the cross by the Jews.  And He who is inseparable from the Father cries to the Father, and commends to Him His spirit; and bowing His head, He gives up the ghost, who said, `I have power to lay down my life, and I have power to take it again;' and because He was not overmastered by death, as being Himself Life, He said this:  `I lay it down of myself.'  And He who gives life bountifully to all, has His side pierced with a spear.  And He who raises the dead is wrapped in linen and laid in a sepulchre, and on the third day He is raised again by the Father, though Himself the Resurrection and the Life.  For all these things has He finished for us, who for our sakes was made as we are.  For `Himself hath borne our infirmities, and carried our diseases; and for our sakes He was afflicted,' as Isaiah the prophet has said.  This is He who was hymned by the angels, and seen by the shepherds, and waited for by Simeon, and witnessed to by Anna.  This is He who was inquired after by the wise men, and indicated by the star; He who was engaged in His Father's house, and pointed to by John, and witnessed to by the Father from above in the voice, `This is my beloved Son; hear ye Him.'  He is crowned victor against the devil.  This is Jesus of Nazareth, who was invited to the marriage-feast in Cana, and turned the water into wine, and rebuked the sea when agitated by the violence of the winds, and walked on the deep as on dry land, and caused the blind man from birth to see, and raised Lazarus to life after he had been dead four days, and did many mighty works, and forgave sins, and conferred power on the disciples, and had blood and water flowing from His sacred side when pierced with the spear.  For His sake the sun is darkened, the day has no light, the rocks are shattered, the veil is rent, the foundations of the earth are shaken, the graves are opened, and the dead are raised, and the rulers are ashamed when they see the Director of the universe upon the cross closing His eye and giving up the ghost.  Creation saw, and was troubled; and, unable to bear the sight of His exceeding glory, shrouded itself in darkness.  This (is He who) breathes upon the disciples, and gives them the Spirit, and comes in among them when the doors are shut, and is taken up by a cloud into the heavens while the disciples gaze at Him, and is set down on the right hand of the Father, and comes again as the Judge of the living and the dead.  This is the God who for our sakes became man, to whom also the Father hath put all things in subjection.  To Him be the glory and the power, with the Father and the Holy Spirit, in the holy Church both now and ever, and even for evermore.  Amen.”  (Against the Heresy of One Noetus, Sections 17-18)

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